Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Benefits of Medical Marijuana Essay

Marijuana is perhaps one of the most controversial herbs rendered illegal by United States laws. Several sectors in the society advocate for the legalization of marijuana. These arguments usually point out to the medical benefits that marijuana contains. The supposed medical benefits of marijuana have been scrutinized by several scientific researchers and some of these claims have been supported by studies. By looking objectively at these medical claims can help people be more aware of the facts and the actual benefits that marijuana offers if there are any. Medical Benefits of Marijuana Medical marijuana, according to some studies can help relieve pain, nausea and muscle spasms. Although these illnesses may be simple symptoms of more serious diseases, they are being experienced by a number of patients that are suffering from hepatitis and cancer among others. In this regard, medical marijuana can be a cheaper alternative for the treatment of these medical conditions (Legal Reefer, 2004). Another medical condition that marijuana can help treat is glaucoma, which impairs the vision because of intra-ocular pressure damage. The reason behind this is that marijuana helps relieve the pressure felt in the eyes, thereby preventing glaucoma from worsening and leading to eventual blindness. Glaucoma, interestingly, is the leading cause of blindness in the United States. With the use of marijuana, therefore, this cause of blindness can be mitigated and more people can cherish their sight for a longer time in their lives. Glaucoma and the pain associated with it can be relieved with marijuana (Legal Reefer, 2004). Other illnesses that marijuana helps treat includes tremors, unsteady gait, muscle pain, multiple sclerosis and spasms. Multiple sclerosis is one of the most debilitating neurological illnesses that afflict young adults in the US. With the help of marijuana, those who are suffering from epileptic seizures also find help. Arthritis, dysmenorrheal, depression and migraines also benefit from treatment with marijuana. The Legal Reefer (2004) reports that some courts and agencies of the US government have verified these findings. Two compounds, Cannabidiol and Caryophyllene, are present in medical marijuana. These two compounds are responsible for the medical effects of marijuana. Cannabidiol helps relieve inflammation, nausea, inflammation and convulsion (Grlie, 1976). In addition, it also helps inhibit the growth of cancer. Caryophyllene, on the other hand, is responsible for reducing tissue inflammation. It usually comes in the form of oil and applied on the inflamed body part (Grlie, 1976). Even if the issue of legalizing marijuana is contentious in the United States, medical practitioners are coming to a consensus that medical marijuana is needed helpful in relieving up to 250 medical conditions. This number is too huge to be ignored by the greater majority in the society. Legalizing Marijuana The literature in support of medical marijuana is robust and continues to grow. Medical marijuana has been shown to aid in the treatment of symptoms for AIDS and cancer. It can also serve as an immuno-modulator and analsgesic. Furthermore, it can help treat asthma and other emotional and bipolar disorders (Lucido, 2008). The American College of Physicians (2008) have also come up with a position paper in support of research concerning medical marijuana and the exemption of medical marijuana from the prosecution of the law. In their paper, the organization cited the health benefits of marijuana in stimulating appetite, in treating glaucoma, neurological and movement disorders and its use as an analgesic. The position of the ACP gives credence to the claims that marijuana can really function as a good medicine. The ACP, however, noted that there are adverse effects associated in marijuana. If smoked, marijuana can increase the heart rate of the user and help decrease the blood pressure. In addition to this, there are other psychoactive effects that are of a more serious nature. These may be manifested in short-term memory impairment, reduction of motor skills, attention and reaction times. There may also be some difficulties in organizing and processing information given to the one who used marijuana. These effects are more severe for those who orally take medical marijuana. So this is certainly an adverse effect that should be carefully taken into account in the case that marijuana is approved as a medicine (Joy, Watson & Benson, 1999). Smoked marijuana also has important adverse effects similar to tobacco. If marijuana is smoked on a regular basis, it can help induce cancer, lung problems, pregnancy problems and even bacterial pneumonia. When taken orally, medical marijuana has less lethal toxicity than other psychoactive drugs being used in the world today. Since medical marijuana will not be prescribed for smoking, then the dangers posed by the adverse effects will be mitigated and will be contained. In fact, these adverse effects are also within the acceptable range of effects present in other forms of medication. Marijuana: To Legalize or to Remain Illegal? With the support of the ACP for the continuation of research for the medical implications of marijuana. With such support, the impetus for legalization will be picked up by those who are advocating for the legalization of marijuana. Another reason why people are pushing for the legalization of marijuana is the perceived economic benefits that it will bring to the government. Marijuana has often been compared with alcohol, which also have harmful contents but is being allowed to be marketed all over the country. If the government could legalize it, then it can derive huge revenues from the taxes and sales derived from marijuana. As it stands now, it is illegal. So the ones who benefit from the marijuana trade are the black market and organized criminals (Gerber & Sperling, 2004). Marijuana is similar to alcohol and tobacco. The major difference is that marijuana offers therapeutic and medicinal effects while tobacco does not and alcohol only helps enhance health minimally. According to Herer and Cabarga (1998), those who are getting rich through the black market want it to remain illegal because if it becomes legal, the money will then have to be transferred to the hands of the government. Conclusion What is needed now is to strike the right balance between maximizing the medicinal effects while mitigating the negative effects of marijuana. The answer to the question of legalization would be a controlled legalization. Marijuana could be used for medicinal purposes and alternative treatment. This means that it would have to be recommended by licensed physicians and that there should be a regulation in using it in the same way that certain narcotic pain killers are regulated in the market. Marijuana should not be offered as an over-the-counter medicine or offered like tobacco or alcohol as this would only make the negative effects of marijuana more prevalent in the society. With government legislation and strict implementation of the law, the medicinal values of marijuana would be used by society while its negative effects would be avoided. Reference American College of Physicians (2008). Supporting Research into the Therapeutic Role of Marijuana. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians. Retrieved 25 September 2008 from http://www. acponline. org/advocacy/where_we_stand/other_issues/medmarijuana. pdf. Grlie, L (1976). â€Å"A comparative study on some chemical and biological characteristics of various samples of cannabis resin†. Bulletin on Narcotics 14: 37–46. Herer, J. & Cabarga, L. (1998). The Emperor Wears No Clothes: Hemp and the Marijuana Conspiracy. New Jersey: Ah Ha Publishing. Joy, J. E. Watson SJ, Benson JA. (1999). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC. Legal Reefer. (2004). Marijuana Offers Medicinal Benefits. Retrieved 17 June 2008 from http://www. legalreefer. com/article4. shtml Lucido, F. (2008). Therapeutic Effects. Retrieved 25 September 2008 from http://www. medboardwatch. com/wb/pages/therapeutic-effects. php

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Woodlawn Case Part 3

Case Part 3 Report for the CFO There are several necessary journal entries that have been made to adjust the unadjusted trial balance. For Allowance for doubtful accounts: 1. In 2009, $ 58,621. 84 was directly written off to bad debt expense reflecting the amounts owed by customers who had gone bankrupt during the year. The journal entry would have been recorded as Dr Bad debt expense 58,621. 84 Cr Account receivable 58,621. 84 To record the uncollectable amount due to customer bankruptcy.The conditions of using the direct write-off method is either for companies in their first year of operations, or for whom uncollectible accounts are immaterial. Woodlawn does not fit either case. Therefore, it is wrong for Woodlawn to use the direct write-off method. The following journal entry is what should have been recorded, Dr Allowance for doubtful account 58,621. 84 Cr Account receivable 58,621. 84 To record the uncollectible amount due to customer bankruptcy. Therefore, the following adjust ed entry is made to correct the write-off of $58,621. 4. Dr. Allowance for doubtful account 58,621. 84 Cr. Bad debt expense 58,621. 84 To record the correction of error made in write-off. 2. Historically, bad debt has averaged out to approximately 1. 5% of revenues. Therefore, we estimate that bad debt in 2009 would be 1. 5% of revenue. The journal entry is the following, Dr. Bad debt expense 20,279. 28* Cr. Allowance for doubtful account20,279. 28 To record the estimated uncollectible amount. *(Calculation: 1. 5%*$1,351,951. 83=20,279. 28) 3. As Tim mentioned that Woodlawn has received $93,256. 1 that’s over 90 days past due since August 31, 2010. There is no journal entry needed to be done, since it had past the fiscal year end. 4. Woodlawn has not received $69,942. 13 from Erie Limited that’s past due over 90 days. But since Erie always paid its bills, there is no need to write-off Erie Limited to AFDA. No adjusted entry needed. 5. Calculation of total amount of All owance for doubtful accounts (AFDA). Assumption for calculating AFDA: we estimate the percentage for AFDA in 2010 to be 11%. This estimation is based on: 1.Based on the information Michael provided, the worse of the recession is over and current economic conditions have improved since last month. 2. Customers are paying slower then previous years due to bad economic conditions. Therefore the percentage of AFDA should fall in a range among percentages of 2008-2009, which is 4. 9%-13. 1%. We estimate 11% to be a better choice. The total amount of AFDA ending balance is 11%* $374,692. 53=$41,216. 18 In order to calculate the AFDA amount needed to adjust, we need the AFDA opening balance which is $35,000 from trial balance, the correction of error made in write-off $58,621. 4. $ 58,621. 84| $35,000 ? | $41,216. 18| ADFA ? = $41,216. 18+$58,621. 84-$35,000=$64,838. 02 The adjusted entry is made based on the previous information, Dr Bad debt expense 64,838. 02 Cr Allowance for doubtful ac counts 64,838. 02 To record the adjustment made for Allowance for doubtful accounts at the fiscal year end. For Insurance: Calculation of the adjustment of prepaid expenses at the year end: Prepaid insurance for the beginning of September 1, 2009: $9,300 Insurance from Fife Insurance:Policy Period: 2010/05/20-2011/05/20 Amount: $12,885. 48 For the period beginning at Sept, 1 2009, to year end at August 31,2010 is 103 days in total, Total Insurance expense = $12,885. 48* 103/365=$3,636. 18 Balance required at year end=$12,885. 48-$3,636. 18=$9,249. 30 Prepaid expense adjustments =$9,300-$9,249. 30=$50. 70 The adjusted entry is made based on the previous calculation, Dr Insurance expense $50. 70 Cr Prepaid insurance$50. 70 To record the adjustment of prepaid insurance

Hong Kong Business Law Assignment

Hong Kong Business Law Assignment 1 1. Zoe wants to sue the retailer to claim back property damage of $22,000. The consumer claim to sue the retailer of HK$22,000 is a minor monetary claim. The Smalls Claims Tribunal was set up to deal with monetary claims involving amounts not exceeding HK$50,000. It is an inferior court which provides a quick , inexpensive and informal method of adjudicating disputes relating to minor monetary claim. Legal representation is not allowed.It is most feasible for Zoe to claim back the HK$22,000 with minimal litigation costs. 2. Possess 0. 05 gram ketamine is categorized as a summary offence. Legal actions for summary offences can be heard in the Magistracy. The Magistracy was set up to exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable and summary offences meriting up to 2 years' imprisonment and a fine of $100,000. Magistrate can also issue warrants, bind a person over to keep the peace and a grant bail. 3. Annie will bring an action under the tort law.Tort law concerns with claims for property damage and personal injuries directly arising out of breaches of a duty of care owed by one individual to another. Tort law provides compensation for both injury to the person and property, causing pure economic loss and for injury. The District Court has limited jurisdiction in both civil and criminal matters. It has civil jurisdiction to hear monetary claims from $ 50,001 and up to $ 1 million. The common types of civil action that the District Court deals with are claims for breach of contract and tort claims.Legal actions for tort claims can be heard in the district court. As Annie wants to claim for claim compensation of HK $85,000, the amount is within the civil jurisdiction of the District Court. Annie can apply to the District Court and a judge will determine whether or not Annie's case will succeed. 4. Bonnie Li can apply to the Labour Tribunal for the unreasonable dismissal by Asia Construction Materials Ltd. Labour Tribunal was set up to provide a quick, inexpensive and informal method of setting disputes between employees and employers. Legal representation is not allowed.It deals with claims arising from the breach of a term of a contract of employment including employment protection. An employee may claim for remedies against an employer under situation of unreasonable dismissal. It is most feasible for Bonnie Li to recover salary in lieu of notice, relevant accrued fringe benefits owed by the employer and other associated compensation with minimal litigation costs. 5. Henry can apply to the Court of First Instance of the High Court for a legal action for judicial review of the decision of the Legislative Council.Constitutional Law are rules which effect distribution and exercise of power and relate to legislature, the executive institutions and the judiciary. Under the Basic Law, legislative council of HKSAR is deemed in law as â€Å"legislature of the Region†. Because the Court of First Instance can exercise supervisory jurisdictions. Supervisory jurisdiction is exercised over inferior courts, tribunals, administrative authorities or public bodies acting judicially through applications for judicial review procedure by the alleged aggravated party. A judge will determine whether or not Henry's case will succeed.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Project Management Tools Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Project Management Tools - Essay Example This essay explores that the common elements are interrelated and any change in one has an effect on the other two. Microsoft Project excels on these elements as whenever any change in project is done using Microsoft Project, the affect of those changes will be visible through Microsoft Project's graphical presentation of your project. This discussion declares that Project Management Templates help to manage projects more successfully. More than 50 pre-completed project management forms, templates, documents and processes will help a Project Manager to save time, reduce cost and improve the quality of projects. Microsoft Project is program developed and sold by Microsoft which is designed to assist project managers in developing plans, assigning resources to tasks, tracking progress, managing budgets and analyzing workloads. Open Project is an open source clone of Microsoft Project 98, which is built for Linux and Unix Systems. It is a powerful application that can be used to efficiently plan, manage, and communicate project information. It can be used to handle dynamic scheduling, manage multiple projects and resources, and support better communication. It makes easy to organize, track and manage project details. The New consolidation and schedule-building help you plan more efficiently, keeping your projects on t rack and within budget. FastTrack Schedule delivers descriptive project snapshots that are sure to make an impact with clients and project managers.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

How do celebrities economically serve the celebrity industry and also Essay

How do celebrities economically serve the celebrity industry and also develop their public personas as commercial assets - Essay Example While the public idolizes or criticizes the stories that they are told by the media, the product that is available for sale in association to the celebrity is given advertising that is associated with that individual. Celebrity is an economic status that drives an industry behind a brand and an identity. As quoted from Todd Gitlin, in Understanding Celebrity by Graeme Turner, the celebrity is the â€Å"familiar strangerâ€Å". A celebrity is someone who has probably never been in the physical presence of a fraction of the people who know his or her name, yet the intimate details of that life is publicized for public consumption as though those details were as important as family and friends. The concept of publicity, both positive and negative creates a media image that defines someone by virtue of information that appears real and tangible, but is essentially no more real than the characterization in a book or in a movie. Stories told are creations of writers and photographers. The importance is not emphasizing truth, but maximizing sales, sometimes at the expense of Celebrity is not based on talent or professional achievement. In fact, â€Å"the modern celebrity may claim no special achievements other than the attraction of public attention† (Graeme, pg. 3). Celebrity status is achieved by the churning of public interest manufactured by media attention. Sometimes this attention is desired, and in other times the attention becomes a machine that cannot be stopped, destroying and re-creating with a will of its own. Who a celebrity is in private is not nearly relevant to the creation of the persona in public. This is the essence of celebrity - that it is created, either by will or momentum. One example of both doctrines being applied is the case of Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt. When Brad Pitt was married to Jennifer Aniston and chose to leave her for his co-star of Mr. and Mrs. Smith, Angelina Jolie, a media storm that has yet to quell

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Business Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 6

Business Management - Essay Example To keep pace with the demands, the operations team should on a high gear to develop better products or services that are more customers oriented (Lang, 2013). Secondly, the mode of relaying information to the customer is very important. Information technology has grown to enable organizations to meet individual needs of customers. In order to remain competitive and retain the customers, use of information technologies is inevitable due to the accompanying efficiency (Lang, 2013). Thirdly, customer care is very important; all issues raised by the customer should be keenly addressed. The care centers should go a notch higher in providing customized customer services. In doing so, the customer feels appreciated hence increasing their loyalty. Another important point is that the organizations should be swift to respond to customer’s opinions and trends (Slywotzky, 2007). Fourthly, the organization should have a database of its customers and keep on tracking any changes in buying trends. If a customer’s trend exhibits a negative change, an appropriate action should be taken by doing follow up geared towards understanding the cause (Slywotzky, 2007). Some companies have been successful in ensuring that customers remain loyal as well as appreciate their products. One of these companies is Coach Inc, a company that makes handbags and other fashion accessories. Coach Inc has utilized diverse ways of identifying the customer needs. It uses over $5 million in the process of testing new products, which includes several methods of reaching to the customers such as surveys, one-one interviews, as well as in-store testing. The company has a database of its customers; this has continued to grow due to the responsiveness and sensitivity to customer needs. The company endeavors to have all the customer dynamics taken care of. Aspects such as positive buying intent, lapsed customers, competitive rating, customer

Friday, July 26, 2019

TLMT313 WEEK 7 FORUM Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

TLMT313 WEEK 7 FORUM - Assignment Example The flow of goods includes both incoming goods and outgoing goods. Mr. Canil assures its global partners the supplies will arrive on time. Further, the PPG Industries manufacturing headquarters is strategically located in Pittsburgh, USA (PPG, 2014). The company’s products include paints, glass products, optical supplies, coatings, and fiber glass items. Mr. Camil monitors and resolves delivery bottlenecks and delays. Consequently, the goods arrive on time. Furthermore, the Supply Chain manager and other officers of PPG Industries responsibly implement global health, safety and quality standards (Smith et al., 2013). The same manager ensures the production process as well as the final products comply with all environmental protection standards. Similarly, the supply chain manager complies with the global safety health standards. The Pittsburgh Plate Glass (PPG) Industries continually sets into motion a feasible global supply chain management plan. The company’s global supply chain is grounded on complying with global health and safety standards. The same entity delivers high quality environmentally compliant supply chain products. Evidently, the Pittsburgh Plate Glass (PPG) industries company implements timely effective and efficient supply chain delivery

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Chaucer writes a 'feminine kind of romance' ( Burrow). Discuss with Essay

Chaucer writes a 'feminine kind of romance' ( Burrow). Discuss with reference to 3 canterbury tales - Essay Example n the battles and events of the past, such as the battles of Troy, the conquests of Alexander the Great or the chivalric traditions rising out of the Arthurian legend. Among these stories, the primary focus was typically placed upon the action of the story, the battles and the skirmishes that occurred between characters, and the aftermath of such behavior, such as the winning of the lady, the acquisition of worldly fame or the re-enforcement of nobility. However, not all stories followed this basic formula, especially as the written tradition began to grow through the 14th century. As writers began to experiment with various means of recording the stories that had been passed down through the oral tradition as well as working to develop stories of their own, new modes of expression began to emerge. For example, Colin Burrow assertively states that Chaucer wrote a feminine kind of romance. What is a feminine kind of romance and how does this apply to Chaucer? To answer these questions , the following paper will first define the characteristics of the kind of ‘feminine’ romance Burrow was discussing and then analyze three of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales – the Wife of Bath, the Prioress and the Knight’s Tale – to determine whether this description applies. The concept of the feminine romance has a great deal to do with the underlying structural format of the novel, particularly as it relates to the issues surrounding gender and the differences between the various ways in which the genders relate to others. For example, studies continue to show even today that women place greater emphasis upon the concept of relationships while men place more emphasis upon action.2 It should not be surprising, therefore, to discover that feminine romances, as such, are primarily concerned with the relationships of characters rather than the actions they undertake. This includes a certain focus upon the emotional lives of the characters as opposed to their physical

Psychological Disorders Screening Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Psychological Disorders Screening Project - Essay Example 405). The results from a properly administered test can provide truthful insights about a person, which in turn could be valuable in helping him or her deal with emotional conflicts, in guiding him or her as to the choice of a course or vocation, or in assisting the individual to land a job (â€Å"Personality Testing†, n.d.). When we speak of personality disorders which Millon defines as the ways by which an â€Å"individual deals with dependency needs (as cited in Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2001, p. 435), psychological screening tests designed to assess such can help professionals identify the syndrome and thereby prescribe appropriate interventions. There are variables that may have serious effects on the test-taking process. One such variable is the test-taker him/herself. Kaplan and Sacuzzo (2001) point that a subject’s motivation, anxiety, physical health and even hormonal levels can significantly affect test performance. When I took the test, I believe I was in a normal state, i.e., neither nervous nor sickly which reflected in the average results I got from the tests. Any and all information gathered from psychological tests may be used in a variety of ways. As mentioned earlier in this paper, personality tests help an individual increase his self-awareness.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Sport and Leisure Identities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Sport and Leisure Identities - Essay Example Thus, the classes are not as distinct as they once were, their nature more developed along consumerism that provides an equalizing element to the nature of choice. While social class and related issues of gender and ethnicity still have powerful influential context for the individual, consumerism also plays a role in the way in which choices about leisure time and sports activities are concerned. Despite the highly influential consumer society that presents equalities of opportunities to the classes, in the end it is still the nature of what is presented as an opportunity, in combination to how a community has developed their identity around leisure and sports that will have the greatest influence on the choices that are made by the individual. Spectator sports, in particular, create large communities of followers that can be explored for the way in which their social class relates to their choices. Social Class The social class systems in Great Britain were originally based on finit e criteria that placed people into social groups according to birth, occupation, and accomplishments. These social groups were finite in that once inside a specific group, even though most often through birth, it was difficult, if not impossible, to find a way up to the next social class level. With growing globalization that begun with the industrialization of goods and services, creating a wealthy middle class who were not associated by birth to nobility, the social class structure has changed dramatically. Social classes are defined by a series of criteria that place a person into a certain strata of social grouping. In order to be a member of the upper class, one is born into the group of landowners who bare titles of the aristocracy. Even if one marries into this group, full integration will more than likely not occur. These families have long histories that are well documented, giving them position and prestige merely from being born into the right family. The upper middle cla ss is defined by the well-educated, although most people are born into this class as well. Through higher educations and academic pursuits, the incomes are high and the perpetuation of this level of achievement is the common way for the perpetuation of the families as they continue their traditions of attending the more prestigious educational institutions.1 The middle class is the group of people who work as doctors, lawyers, architects, teachers, and those who have attained a position of respect through the means of their education and accomplishments. The nouveau rich are the people who have attained new money, their lifestyles altered by the increases in wealth that comes, not from family, but from entrepreneurial or inventive efforts. The nouveau rich is a relatively new class that was not in existence pre-industrial communities.2 This type of self-made wealth was not possible during feudal configurations of society and has only emerged with the consumerist society that has acc ompanied industrialization. The lower middle class consists of white collar workers without extensive educations working in jobs that are still cerebral, but not high paying and without much in the way of earned respect due to their professional

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Gun control in America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Gun control in America - Essay Example The rate of homicide has been directly related to gun ownership according to research and case studies (Hepburn et al., 419). Over 60% of murders involve guns in the United States and are more common in urban areas (Hepburn et al., 419). Individually or as a part of juvenile-crime bill (ESPO), gun control laws have set a precedent for strict legislation against guns by the gun control advocates after each incident of public shooting. The 1999 Colorado school shooting resulted in strict gun control laws to be passed which were never considered likely to be passed before (Gimpel, 92). The laws mainly restricted gun availability to the children and put the responsibility of gun’s use in crime on the owner to curtail usage by minors. The stigma created by the gun control often results in counter arguments and conspiracy theories. The gun control critics rebut claims of the relationship between guns and homicide with the fact that there is lesser gun violence in England and Wales w here firearm availability is less as compared to the United States. The legislation to curb gun control is criticized as unconstitutional with the emphasis on controlling crime and not the guns (Bogart, 339). 1986 Gun Owners Protection Act was one of the successful movements to counter objectionable legislation against gun ownership (Tatalovich et al., 177). The for and against sides of gun control reflected in the government as well as the lawmakers, which makes it equally possible for both sides to get their way; the debate being carried on to lawmaking platforms. Furthermore, illegal arms markets and dealings have only endangered the point of view of the pro-gun activists. The illegal gun trade is generally to facilitate crime and stricter background checks and registration laws have been requested time and again to control such activity. As such, where firearm registration would be a reasonable way to go, absolute abandonment of guns as proposed by the gun control activists is v ehemently opposed by the pro-gun side. Destitute individuals being more likely to misuse guns have been pointed out in different researches; poverty and gun ownership is said to be a bad combination and a motivation for crime (Deborah et al., 92). Gun owners advocate that the law is for the law abiding; criminals will acquire guns illegally for illegal use and only the law abiding citizens would be affected by the gun control laws. A series of ad hominems being thrown on have made the issue delicate and often a point in election campaigns. Firearm storage being a major problem when guns are not properly locked away and are kept loaded cause unfortunate incidents. Unintentional firearm injuries and deaths caused by this have called for further gun control laws (Miller et al., 37). This on the other hand is seen by the gun owners as a need to create awareness about gun safety. Societies like National Rifle Association have long worked on this to promote guns, yet create awareness abou t the right usage and storage. NRA has been staunchly assisting gun owners and it holds annual gatherings to facilitate the gun rights and advocate the second amendment. According to another set of findings, only 25% of murders are committed using a gun (Street Crime in America, 1323). This means that the derivation of guns as a concept for crime and enforcing laws will have an effect on gun ownership, but not the crime which is the target

Monday, July 22, 2019

Accounting for human behavior Essay Example for Free

Accounting for human behavior Essay In order to survive and interact with the other members of the society, it is crucial for us to understand what the other people are thinking about and what the underlying factors that contribute to their behavior are. In our daily life, people are continuously interpreting and explaining others behavior, sometimes even without aware of it themselves. How does this knowledge of interpreting the others come about? And is it a reliable method?Most people are using common sense explanation to interpret human behavior, while social scientists will explain our world by social science theories. What are they? And which one can give a more reliable and accurate account for human behavior?Common Sense Explanations are formed basing on individuals past experiences or were passed down from the last generations. It is the most basic and simple form of knowledge that helps us to survive. For instance, people understand that it will be hurt when a ball is throwing at them and in result, they will run away from it. We use the common sense to perceive the world we are living in. It is unimaginable if a person does not possess any common sense at all. See more: Old Age Problem essay Social Science Theories, like the theories in natural science, are derived from scientific methods. They are either induced or deduced from different task or experiment. But since the subject matter in social sciences is completely different from that of natural science, observation, survey and interview which sometimes involves a control group, are the methodology used to test the experimental hypotheses, instead of using laboratory experiments. Hence, social science theories are backed up by empirical studies and data, and therefore should be more widely applicable, objective and reliability to explain human behavior. Unlike social science theories, common sense is held by everyone. Therefore, people can draw on this knowledge immediately when they want to analysis behavior of the others and giving a faster response to the situation. However, the strength of common sense is also its greatest weakness. In many cases, common sense explanation cannot give us a satisfactory answer because it has oversimplified the circumstance. For instance, it is a general belief that the more violent movies a child watches, the more aggressive he will be. People may neglect other factors,  such as family backgrounds, in contributing to childrens aggressive behavior, which had proved to be an equally crucial by many social scientists. In addition, human behaviors are complex as well as unique to each individual. Different culture, race, living environment and family history will lead to the formation of different behaviors. Similarly, common sense explanation varies in different culture, society and individual, and therefore, actually is not the same to everyone in our society. How can a foreigner understand all the traditional attitudes and values of a Chinese? Likewise, it is not easy for us to comprehend all the behaviors of the foreigners. As a result, there will be bias if we rely on common sense explanation as it is too generalized and oversimplified without really investigating the underlying factors behind the scene. In contrast, social sciences theories can supplement the weakness of common sense explanation as each theory is based on a numbers of hypotheses which in turn will be tested, though the methodology used is somewhat different from that of natural science. In other words, social science theories are more reliable and valid than that of common sense explanations. Moreover, social science theories are more widely applicable as they are derived from a great numbers of data which are collected from different channels and people. Some people may argue that some social sciences theories are similar to our common sense explanations, for which is a coincident that we cannot deny since many hypotheses are formed with the basis of common sense assumptions. People can use common sense to explain or judge most things we encounter in our daily life. However, when we come to analyze more complicated matters, such as human behaviors, common sense explanation alone would be insufficient. In these circumstances, social science theories, which have been undergoing empirical researches and experiments, are more reliable. We cannot ignore the importance of common sense since it is a basic knowledge that people possessed, whereas social science theories may not be  known to most people. And in many cases common sense is the foundation of many hypotheses, and thus is the origin of a theory. But it is crucial to note that when people want to have an in-depth, comparatively reliable and valid explanation, social science theories should be employed. REFERENCE Roth (1990), Introduction to Psychology, United Kingdom: The Open University. Gross (1992), Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behaviour, p.19-23, London: Hodder Stoughton

Sunday, July 21, 2019

What Materials Can Be Recycled Environmental Sciences Essay

What Materials Can Be Recycled Environmental Sciences Essay Recycling involves processing used materials into new products in order to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for conventional waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste management and is the third component of the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle waste hierarchy. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, textiles and electronics. Although similar in effect, the composting or other reuse of biodegrabale waste- such as food or garden waste- is not typical considered recycling. Materials to be recycled are either brought to a collection center or picked up from the curbside, then sorted, cleaned up, and reprocessed into new materials bound for manufacturing. In a strict sense recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material, for example, used office paper to more office paper, or used foamed polystyrene to more polystyrene. However, this is often difficult or too expensive (compared with producing the same product from raw materials or other sources), so recycling of many products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials (e.g., cardboard) instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products, either due to their natural value (e.g., lead from car batteries, or gold from computer components), or due to their hazardous nature (e.g., removal and reuse of mercury from various items). Critics dispute the net economic and environmental benefits of recycling over its costs. Specififically, critics argue that the costs and energy saved in collection and transportation detract from (and possibly outweigh) the costs and energy saved in the production process, also that the jobs produced by the recycling industry production, can be a poor trade for the jobs lost in logging, mining and other industries associated with virgin production, and that the materials such as paper pulp can only be recycled few times before material degradation prevents further recycling. Proponents of recycling counter each of these claims, and the validity of arguments from both sides led to enduring controversy. History Early recycling: recycling has been a common practice for most of human history, which recorded advocates as far back as Plato in 400 BC (Greek, 428/427 BC 348/347 BC, was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues.Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of natural philosophy, science, and Western philosophy. Plato was originally a student of Socrates). During periods when resources were scarce, archeological studies of ancient waste dumps show less household waste ( such as ash, broken tools and pottery)- implying more waste was being recycled in the absence of new material. In pre-industrial times, there is evidence of scrap bronze and other metals being collected in Europe and melted down for perpetual reuse. In Britain dust and ash from wood and coal fires was collected by dustmen and downcycled as a base material use in brick making. The main driver for these types of recycling was the economic advantage of obtaining recycled feedstock instead of acquiring virgin material, as well as a lack of public waste removal in ever more densely populated areas. Wartime recycling Resource shortages caused by the world was, on other such world-changing ocurrences greatly encouraged recycling. Massive government promotion campaigns were carried out in the World War II in every country involved in the war, urging citizens to donate metals and conserve fibre, as a matter of signigicant patriotic importance. Resource conservation programs established during the war were continued in some contries without an abundance of natural resources, such as Japan, after the war ended. Post-war recycling The next big investment in recycling occured in the 1970s, due to rising energy costs. Recycling aluminium use only 5% of the energy required by virgin production, glass, paper and metals have less dramatic but very significant energy savings when recyclind feedstock is used. Process Collection: A number of different systems have been implemented to collect recyclables from general waste stream. These systems tend to lie along the spectrum of trade-off between public convenience and government ease and expense. The three main categories of collestion are drop-off centres and curbside collection. Dro-off centres require the waste producer to carry the recyclables to central location, either and installed or mobile collection station for the reprocessing plant itself. They are the easiest type of collection to establish, but suffer from low and unpredictable throughput. Buy-back centres differ in that the cleaned recyclables are purchased, thus providing a clear incentive for use and creating a stable supply. The subsides are necessary to make buy-back centres a viable enterprise. Curbside collection: Curbside collection encompasses many subtly different systems, which differ mostly on where in the process the recyclables are sorted and cleaned. The main categories are mixed waste collection, commingled recyclables and source separation. A waste collection vehicule generally picks up the waste. At one end to the spectrum is mixed waste collection, in which all recyclables are collected mixed in with the rest of the waste, and the desired material is then sorted out and cleaned at a central sorting facility. This results in a large amount of recyclable waste, paper especially, being too soiled to reprocess but has advantages as well, the city need to pay for a separate collection of recyclables and not public education is needed. Any changes to which materials are recyclable is easy to accomodate as all sorting happens in a central location. In a commingled or single- stream system, all recyclables for collection are mixed but kept separate from other waste. This greatly reduces the need for post-collection cleaning but does require public education on what materials are recyclable. Source separation is the other extreme, where each material is cleaned and sorted prior to collection. This method requires the last post-collection sorting and produces the purest recyclables, but incurs additional operating costs for collection of each separate material. An extensive public education program is also required, which must be successful if recyclables contamination is to be avoided. Source separation used to be the preferred method due to the high sorting costs incurred by commingled collection. Advances in sorting technology (explained in Sorting paragrapgh below), however, have lowered this overhead substantially-many areas which had developed source separation programs have since switched to commingled collection. Sorting: Once commingled recyclables are collected and delivered to a central collection facility, the different types of materials must be sorted. This is done in a series of stages, many of which involve automated process such as the truck-load of material can be fully sorted in less than an hour. Some plants can now sort the materials automatically, known as Singke Stream. A 30% increase in recycling rates has been seen in the areas where these plants exist. Initially the commingled recyclables are removed from the collection vehicle and placed on a conveyor belt spread out in a single layer. Large pieces of cardboard and plactic bags are removed by hand at this stage, as they can cause later machinery to jam. Next automated machinary separates the recyclables by weight, splitting lighter paper and plastic from heavier glass and metal. Cardboard is removed from the mixed paper, and the most common types of plastic, PET(#1) and HPDE (#2), are collected. This separation is usually done by hand, but has become automated in some sorting centres, a spectroscopic scanner is used to differentiate between different types pf paper and plastic based on the absorbed wavelenghts (lenght of wave cycle), and subsequently divert each material into the proper collection channel. Strong magnets are used to separate out ferrous metals, such as iron, steel, and thin-plated steel cans (tin cans). Non-ferrous metals are ejected by magnetic eddy currents in which a rotating magnetic field induces an electric current around the aluminium cans, which in turn creates a magnetic eddy current inside the cans. This magnetic eddy current is repulsed by a large magnetic field, and the cans are ejected from the rest of the recyclable stream. Finally, glass must be sorted by hand based on its color: brown, amber, green or clear. Common recyclables Many different materials can be recycled but each type requires different technique. Aggregates and concretes: Concrete aggregate collected from demolition sites is put through a crushing machine, often along with asphalt, bricks, dirt, and rocks. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects. Crushed recycled concrete can also be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete if it is free of contaminants. This reduces the need for other rocks to be dug up, which in turn saves trees and habitats. Batteries: The large variation in size and type of batteries makes their recycling extremely difficult, they must first be sorted into similar kinds and each kind requires an individual process. Additionally, older batteries contain mercury and cadmium (mettalic chemical element), harmful materials which must be handled with care. Because of their potential environmental damage, proper disposal of used batteries is required by law in many areas. Unfortunately, this mandate has been difficult to enforce. Lead-acid batteries, like those used in automobiles, are relatively easy to recycle. Biodegradable waste: Kitchen, garden, and other green waste can be recycled into useful material by composting. This process allows natural aerobic material to break down the waste into fertile topsoil. Must composting is done on a household scale, but municipal green-waste collection programs also exist. The programs can supplement their funding by selling the topsoil produced. Clothing: Recycling clothe via consignment or swapping has become increasingly popular. In a clothing swap, a group of people gather at a venue to exchange clothes amongst each other. Electronics disassembly and reclamation: The direct disposal of electrical equipment, such as old computers and mobile phones, is banned in many areas due to toxic contents of certain components. The recycling process works by mechanically separating the metals, plastics, and circuit boards contained in the appliance. When this is done on a large scale at an electronic waste recycling plant, component recovery can be archived in cost-effective. Ferrous metals: Iron and steel are the worlds most recycled materials, and among the easiest to reprocess, as they can be separated magnetically from the waste stream. Recycling is via a steelworks, scrap is either remelted in an electric arc furmace (90-100%scrap), or used as the part of the charge in a basic Oxygen furnace (around 25%). Any grade of steel can be recycled to top quality new metals, with no downgrading from prime to lower quality materials as steel is recycled repeatedly. 42% of crude steel product is recycled material. Non-ferrous metals: Aluminium is the most efficient and widely-recycled materials. Aluminium is shredded and ground into small pieces or crushed into bales. These pieces or bales are melted in an aluminium smelter to produce molten aluminium. By this stage the recycled aluminium is indistinguishable from virgin aluminium and further processin is identical for both. This process does not produce any change in the metal, so aluminium can be recycled indefinitely. Recycling aluminium saves 95% of the energy cost of processing new aluminium. This is because the temperature necessary for melting recycled, nearly pure, aluminium is 600 Â °C, while to extract mined aluminium from its ore requires 900 Â °C. To reach this higher temperature, much more energy is needed, leading to the high environmental benefits of environmental benefits of aluminium recycling. Also the energy saved by recycling one aluminium can is enough to run a television for 3 hours. Glass: Glass bottles and jars are gathered then sorted into color categories. The collected glass cullet is taken to a glass recycling plant where it is monitored for purity and contaminants are removed. The cullet is crushed and added to a raw material mix in a melting furnace. It is then mechanically blown or molded into new jars or bottles. Glass cullet is also used in the construction industry for aggregate and glassphalt. Glassphalt is a road-laying material which comprises around 30% recycled glass. Glass can be recycled indefinitely as its structure does not deteriorate when reprocessed. Paper: Paper can be recycled by reducing it to pulp and combining it with pulp from newly harvested wood. As the recycling process causes the paper fibres to break down, each time paper is recycled its quality decreases. This means that either a higher percentage of new fibres must be added, or the paper downcycled into lower quality products. Any writing or colouration of the paper must first be removed by deinking, which also removes fillers, clays, and fibre fragments. Almost all paper can be recycled today, but some types are harder to recycle than others. Paper coated with plastic or aluminium foil, and paper that are waxed, pasted, or gummed are usually not recycled because the process is too expensive. Gift-wrap paper also cannot be recycled due to its already poor quality. Plastic: Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastics and reprocessing the material into useful products. Compared to glass or metallic materials, plastic poses unique challenges. Because of the massive number of types of plastic, they each carry a resin identification code, and must be sorted before they can be recycled. This can be costly, while metals can be sorted using electromagnets, not such easy sorting capability exists for plastics. In addition to this, while labels do not need to be removed from bottles for recycling, lids are often made from a different kind of non-recyclable plastic. To help in identifying the materials in various plastic items, resin identification code numbers 1-6 have been assigned to six common kinds of recyclable plastic resins, with the number 7 indicating any other kind of plastic, whether recyclable or not. Standardized symbols are available incorporating each of these resin codes. Textiles: When considering textile recycling one must understand what the material consists of most textiles are composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastics. The textiles composition will affect its durability and method of recycling. Workers sort and separate collected textiles into good quality clothing and shoes which can be reused or worn. There is a trend of moving these facilities from developed countries to developing countries either for charity or sold for cheaper price. Usually, international organisations collect used textiles from developed countries as a donation to those third world countries. This recycling practice is encouraged because it helps to reduce unwanted waste while providing clothing to those in need. Damaged textiles are further sorted into grades to make industrial wiping cloths and use in paper manufacture or material suitable for fibre reclamation and filling products. If textile reprocessors receive wet or soiled clothes however, these may still disposed of in a landfill, as the washing and drying facilities are not present at sorting units. Wood: Recycling wood has become popular due to its image as an environmentally friendly product, with consumers commonly beleiving that by purchasing recycling wood the demand will fall and ultimately benefit the environment. The arrival of recycled wood as a construction product has been important in both raising industry and consumer awarness towards deforestation and promoting wood mills to adopt environmentally friendly practices. Other techniques: Several other materials are also commonly recycled, frequently at an industrial level. Ship breaking is one example that has associated environmental, health, and safety risks for the area where the operation takes place, balancing all these considerations is a environmental justice problem. Tyre recycling is also common. Used tyres can be added to asphalt for producing road surfaces or to make rubber much used on playgrounds for safety. There are also often used as the insulation and heat absorbing/releasing material in specially constructed homes known as earthships.

Marketing Mix Analysis Of Le Bistrot Pierre Restaurant Marketing Essay

Marketing Mix Analysis Of Le Bistrot Pierre Restaurant Marketing Essay Introduction Marketing mix is used to describe the combination of different marketing activities that a business does to best meet the needs of the market it is targeting (Jobber and Fahy, 2009). At first, the marketing mix was compounded of 4Ps; starting with the product, price, place and promotion. Thereafter other elements were added to these tools and these elements were; people, process and physical evidence. Considering the added elements, the marketing mix of 7Ps forms a tool that businesses use to satisfy the needs of costumers in the market it targets. Accordingly, the purpose of this report is to analyse how Le Bistrot Pierre, a French restaurant on Mill Lane, in Leicester uses the marketing mix. Identifying where this restaurant succeeds in using the 7Ps and where it fails and proposing what improvements can be made. The main product in Le Bistrot Pierre is the food and drinks menu. The products must provide good value for money for customers and be of a high quality to entice the customers to want to spend and to make a return visit. This restaurants food and drinks menu are of a very high standard. The website notes that the managing team of the restaurant often go to France to taste new foods and drinks to offer to their customers. Le Bistrot Pierre also offers a breakfast menu to its customers at selected branches. Unfortunately, Le Bistrot Pierre does not offer a childrens food menu. However, if the restaurant was to offer a childrens menu it would entice families to visit the restaurant knowing that they would not have to buy their children and adults meal only for a lot of it to be wasted. Furthermore, offering a childrens menu would promote the restaurants family friendly atmosphere and increase overall profits. As mentioned above Le Bistrot Pierre offers a breakfast menu, however it only offers this menu at its Leamington Spa, Harrogate, Stockton Heath and Stratford-Upon-Avon branches. Therefore, its customers in places like Nottingham and Leicester do not have the opportunity to taste this menu. Furthermore, although these 4 branches offer breakfast menus they all open at different times, for instance, Stratford-Upon-Avon offers its breakfast menu from 7am on weekdays whereas Leamington Spa only offers its breakfast menu on weekends (Le Bistrot Pierre, 2010). One problem with this is that customers who are travelling throughout the UK and see a Le Bistrot Pierre restaurant may assume that they can get a breakfast then realise that the particular branch they have gone to does not offer this service. Though Szymanski, et al (1993) suggest that marketing standardisation across business branches is still under constant debate, the effect of giving customers mixed perceptions about opening time s and breakfast service across cities may be problematic. Therefore to ensure that customers have a good customer experience at all times the chain should offer the breakfast menu at all its chains and at the same times. The Price It is important that the price should be competitive however the food offered should also represent the amount of money that the customer is spending on it. The lunch menu at Le Bistrot Pierre according to the website is  £9.75 for two courses and  £11.75 for three courses (Le Bistrot Pierre, 2010). These prices are reasonable when one looks at other French style restaurants in Nottingham. For instance, French Livings lunch time menu offers a two course meal for  £8.50 and a three course meal for  £10.50 (French Living 2010). In addition to this, Le Mistral in Nottingham offers a 2 course lunch menu for  £8.90 and 3 course lunch for  £10.90 (Le Minstral 2010). In regard the wine menu at Le Bistrot Pierre, they offer their cheapest white wine at  £13.75 and the most expensive at  £27.60, and for their red wine, their cheapest is  £17.95 and their most expensive  £61.75. This seems reasonable when compared with Le Mistral another French restaurant in Nottingham that offers their cheapest white wine at  £13.95 and their most expensive at  £45.50, and for their red wine their cheapest is  £13.95 and their most expensive is  £45.60. The Place Place is concerned with the location so that the customer can buy the product with ease, and its accessibility to the store is another important aspect. In the case of the restaurant it ideally should be in a central place. This means that it is in an area of high exposure for potential customers, be they on foot or in a car. In regard to Le Bistrot Pierre, they are located centrally in all their 8 locations. These locations are in different counties in the UK such as, Derby, Harrogate, Leamington Spa, Leicester, Nottingham, Sheffield, Stockton Heath and Stratford-Upon-Avon. Similarly, a new branch is being opened in Yorkshire, providing a wider reach to customers around the UK. A negative aspect of Le Bistrot Pierre is that it does not offer a car parking facility at any of its chains; therefore if someone wishes to park their car they will have to pay high central city prices. One potential improvement for future restaurants within this group would be to have a car parking facility to entice customers from the outskirts of cities to visit them. The Promotion Promotion involves different items and the ways in which businesses communicate their products to the customer showing the benefits of buying their products. Le Bistrot Pierre has 2 very popular promotions they do daily, the first is the Early Bird and Pre-Theatre menu which consists of 2 courses before 7pm and costs 13.90. The second is the Prix Fixe Evening with a glass of St. Jean wine which costs 15.50. In regard to special events, Le Bistrot Pierre offers the Soirà ©e Gastronomique menu on the 2nd and 4th Tuesday of the month for 21.90 and the Dine with Wine 3 course menu, each course comes with a specially matched wine for 26.90. In addition to this, Le Bistrot Pierre also promotes its brand via gift cards that customers can purchase for their family and friends to go and try the restaurants food and drink. The People People includes everyone who is connected to the product. This involves employees, customers, management and the business owners; therefore everyone has an important role in making the business succeed. The restaurant need to have qualified chefs and staff who can present the product to the customers and are experts in French cuisine. Le Bistrot Pierre details on their website the type of person they wish to work them, noting that they wish to employ people who are friendly, enthusiastic, hard working and care about giving excellent customer service in a busy restaurant environment. Le Bistrot Pierres website has several reports from journalists promoting the superior quality of their food. Furthermore, Le Bistrot Pierre uses the media and journalists to promote their offers and competitions for free evening meals. The Process Process focuses on the activities done to the product before it is provided to the customer and the method or the process used to provide the service. The main element in process is time, if the process takes long, the sale of the product will be affected. Interestingly, the Le Bistrot Pierre team visits some suppliers in order to ensure the health of the livestock purchased. This evidently expresses the concern that the management have towards providing the customers with their monies worth. Accordingly, the quicker the process is, the more appreciated the product. In the restaurant website news section, an article taken from Leicester and mercury newspaper dated 3rd June 2010 shows an appreciation to this process of being quick and flawless. The only slight let down mentioned by the writer Gary Mitchell was that when he ordered chocolate mousse for his desert, he ended up with an Orange chocolate he did not order. The Physical Evidence Physical evidence can be defined as the experience in the use of either service or product. For example, brochures or pamphlets that describe the product to the customer to enable him to know what he is buying and its qualities. Also, the restaurant is furnished in a very warm way in which the high and middle class individuals will be comfortable dining and wining. Moreover, the arrangement of the hall can be adjusted to suit family seating. This means customers of different categories can find convenience in Le Bistrot Pierre. In the case of the different restaurant servings, it is described in its various menu cards for starters, main courses, desserts, and drinks. Conclusion In general, Le Bistrot Pierre used all the 7Ps of the marketing mix to meet the needs of the customers, though it slightly failed to use them fully as Gary Mitchells article points out. Improving the quality of the service, adding childrens menu and creating home delivery meals, would help to increase the popularity of the restaurant; though it has already set a good reputation in gastronomy as the restaurant declares it in the website. Furthermore, Le Bistrot Pierre may preferably consider putting the breakfast menu in all branches that do not have this menu yet. This should be supported by specific timing for the breakfast start in all branches. Finally, Le Bistrot Pierre do not have car park and may lose some customers. They could try to create arrangements (or contract) with the nearest car park and tell the customers they have free parking. This will serve as a means to entice potential customers and increase business for the restaurant.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

In Our Time Reader Response :: time

In Our Time Reader Response "In the early morning on the lake sitting in the stern of the boat with his father rowing, he felt quite sure that he would never die" (19). The first four readings of In Our Time seem to be primarily focused on the life/death relationship that life presents. After reading the first story, I have to be perfectly honest in saying that I do not believe that I understood all of the underlining themes, but did start to focus more intently when the story describes the women on the pier with the dead babies. Automatically, this imagery made me think of the response passage from this set of reading. Denying oneself that death exists and that it, ultimately, a part of everyone's life seemed to be a common philosophic element that both of the stories possessed. Just as Nick reassured himself that the inevitable would never to him, the women on the pier with their six-day-dead (!) babies that "wouldn't give them up". I think that the connection to Hemingway's life in these elements possibly show or admit the Lost Generation's tendency to deny to themselves that they were susceptible to harm and death. An example of this is the char acter in Jack Kerouac's novel On the Road tended to lead a free and reckless lifestyle of drugs, partying, and freedom that seemed to have no limits or consequences. Another example of the life/death relationship that seems to be exemplified in the first four pieces of Hemingway's novel is the conflicts that arise during Indian Camp. Rather than Nick expressing the sole fact that he believes he is not going to die, I believe that, because of his father, he misunderstood the concept of dying. I believe that the passage that stated, "he felt quite sure that he would never die" was essentially a reaction to the pregnant woman's husband's suicide. Because that was the topic that arose during the story, I believe that Nick interpreted the situation that "death" was equal to "suicide" and, in believing that he would never commit suicide, ultimately believes that he will, thus, never die. I also believe that there is significance in the way in which Nick's father spoke to him while performing the C-section on the woman. He said something along the lines of "you can watch this or not" meaning that, even I Nick didn't watch his father perform the surgery, it was still taking place and, thus, just a part or fact of life.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Identity and Self-Esteem: A Look at Self-Verification in African Americ

Individuals are born into families, races, cultures, and countries, but have little awareness of their individuality as very young children. The psychological sense of being separate individuals from their families or caretakers appears to be of little importance until they recognize themselves as separate selves. This is true for all human beings in all cultures, but for races or cultures who have been marginalized, having a separate identity and gaining self-esteem appear to play an even more important role. This essay will look at African American literature from a psychological perspective. From Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs to Zora Neale Hurston's Delia in "Sweat" to James Baldwin's John in Go Tell It On the Mountain, group and individual identity, in conjunction with a high level of self-esteem, are critical factors in determining the successes achieved by individuals and literary characters in the African American literary tradition. Without this sense of group identit y, individual identity, and self-esteem, the African American character becomes like Richard Wright's Bigger Thomas and can not survive. Self-esteem is an important component of human growth. Abraham Maslow's psychological theory argues for a hierarchy of needs composed of a pyramid of five levels. "Beyond the details of air, water, food, and sex, he laid out five broader layers: physiological needs, needs for safety and security, needs for love and belonging, needs for esteem, and the need to actualize the self, in that order. " (Boeree) Maslow argued that few reach the highest level of self-actualization. According to his research, only about 2% of the population reach that level, and most of those were historical figures-Albert Einstein, Ab... ... Abstract. Douglass, Frederick. "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass." African American Literature. Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and Nellie Y. McKay. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997. 302-368. Drake, Kimberly. "Rewriting the American self: Race, gender, and identity in the autobiographies of Frederick Douglas and Harriet Jacobs." Melus. Winter 1997. Vol. 22, Issue 4, p. 91. Full text article. Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents In the Life of a Slave Girl: Written By Herself. Ed. and Intro. Nell Irvin Painter. New York: Penguin, 2000. Parsons, Richard D., Stephanie Lewis Hinson and Deborah Sardo-Brown. Educational Psychology: A Practitioner-Researcher Model of Teaching. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2001. 80-81. Wright, Richard. Native Son. New York: HarperPerennial, 1998.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Comparing Cousin Kate and The Seduction Essay -- Christina Rossetti Ei

Comparing Cousin Kate and The Seduction In this coursework I will be comparing the two poems ‘Cousin Kate’ by Christina Rossetti and ‘The Seduction’ by Eileen McAuley. The two poems have many similarities but there are also some differences between them. To begin I will give an introduction to both the poems. Cousin Kate is about a cottage maiden that is tricked into having an affair with a rich Lord. She is then betrayed by the Lord who decides to dump her. He then marries her Cousin Kate who is much more beautiful than her and who has not yet lost her virginity. The Lord completely forgets about the maid after abandoning her and leaves her all alone. The maiden later realises that she is pregnant with a baby boy who is the son of the lord. The poem ends with the cottage maiden being an outcast because she has got pregnant before getting married but also with her feeling triumphant because here son will one day be the heir to the Lord’s lands. The Seduction is about a 16 year old girl who has a one night stand with a boy whom she meets at a party. The boy is into bad habits like drinking and taking drugs. He offers the girls some drinks and once she is very drunk he takes her to the docks near a river where he sleeps with her. After that night the girl never sees the boy again and realises 3 months later that she is pregnant. Her life is completely destroyed by her pregnancy. She has no more friends and nobody will ever speak to her again. She feels very bitter as to how her life has been ruined due to one mistake and how she has become an outcast. She ends the poem extremely disillusioned with life and how it has treated her. There are many differences between the two poems. The two poems took ... ...drinks and fallen into the boys trap. I prefer the poem Cousin Kate because in this poem the maiden has some hope for her future in the end because her son will be the heir to the lord’s estates. She has something to look forward too. She can also feel triumphant because her Cousin Kate will not have nay children. The ending of the seduction though is much bleaker with the girl having no hope for her future and even feeling like committing suicide. I think the attitude to teenage pregnancy was almost the same in both these poems even though they were set in different times. Even today the attitude to teenage pregnancy is very bad and girls who get pregnant in their teen years are treated as outcasts by society which is very wrong. Even if a girl does get pregnant society has to accept the fact that she has made a mistake and give her another chance.

Part Three Chapter XI

XI Krystal did not take Robbie to nursery on Tuesday morning, but dressed him for Nana Cath's funeral instead. As she pulled up his least ripped trousers, which were a good two inches too short in the leg, she tried to explain to him who Nana Cath had been, but she might as well have saved her breath. Robbie had no memory of Nana Cath; he had no idea what Nana meant; no concept of any relative other than mother and sister. In spite of her shifting hints and stories, Krystal knew that Terri had no idea who his father was. Krystal heard her mother's footsteps on the stairs. ‘Leave it,' she snapped at Robbie, who had reached for an empty beer can lying beneath Terri's usual armchair. ‘C'm'ere.' She pulled Robbie by the hand into the hall. Terri was still wearing the pyjama bottoms and dirty T-shirt in which she had spent the night, and her feet were bare. ‘Why intcha changed?' demanded Krystal. ‘I ain't goin',' said Terri, pushing past her son and daughter into the kitchen. ‘Changed me mind.' ‘Why?' ‘I don' wanna,' said Terri. She was lighting a cigarette off the ring of the cooker. ‘Don' fuckin' ‘ave to.' Krystal was still holding Robbie's hand, as he tugged and swung. ‘They're all goin',' said Krystal. ‘Cheryl an' Shane an' all.' ‘So?' said Terri aggressively. Krystal had been afraid that her mother would pull out at the last minute. The funeral would bring her face to face with Danielle, the sister who pretended that Terri did not exist, not to mention all the other relatives who had disowned them. Anne-Marie might be there. Krystal had been holding on to that hope, like a torch in the darkness, through the nights she had sobbed for Nana Cath and Mr Fairbrother. ‘You gotta go,' said Krystal. ‘No, I ain'.' ‘It's Nana Cath, innit,' said Krystal. ‘So?' said Terri, again. ‘She done loads fer us,' said Krystal. ‘No, she ain',' snapped Terri. ‘She did,' said Krystal, her face hot and her hand clutching Robbie's. ‘Fer you, maybe,' said Terri. ‘She done fuck-all for me. Go an' fuckin' bawl all over ‘er fuckin' grave if yeh want. I'm waitin' in.' ‘Wha' for?' said Krystal. ‘My bus'ness, innit.' The old familiar shadow fell. ‘Obbo's comin' round, is ‘e?' ‘My bus'ness,' repeated Terri, with pathetic dignity. ‘Come to the funeral,' said Krystal loudly. ‘You go.' ‘Don' go fuckin' usin',' said Krystal, her voice an octave higher. ‘I ain',' said Terri, but she turned away, looking out of the dirty back window over the patch of overgrown litter-strewn grass they called the back garden. Robbie tugged his hand out of Krystal's and disappeared into the sitting room. With her fists deep in her trackie pockets, shoulders squared, Krystal tried to decide what to do. She wanted to cry at the thought of not going to the funeral, but her distress was edged with relief that she would not have to face the battery of hostile eyes she had sometimes met at Nana Cath's. She was angry with Terri, and yet felt strangely on her side. You don't even know who the father is, do yeh, yer whore? She wanted to meet Anne-Marie, but was scared. ‘All righ', then, I'll stay an' all.' ‘You don' ‘ave ter. Go, if yeh wan'. I don' fuckin' care.' But Krystal, certain that Obbo would appear, stayed. Obbo had been away for more than a week, for some nefarious purpose of his own. Krystal wished that he had died, that he would never come back. For something to do, she began to tidy the house, while smoking one of the roll-ups Fats Wall had given her. She didn't like them, but she liked that he had given them to her. She had been keeping them in Nikki's plastic jewellery box, along with Tessa's watch. She had thought that she might not see Fats any more, after their shag in the cemetery, because he had been almost silent afterwards and left her with barely a goodbye, but they had since met up on the rec. She could tell that he had enjoyed this time more than the last; they had not been stoned, and he had lasted longer. He lay beside her in the grass beneath the bushes, smoking, and when she had told him about Nana Cath dying, he had told her that Sukhvinder Jawanda's mother had given Nana Cath the wrong drugs or something; he was not clear exactly what had happened. Krystal had been horrified. So Nana Cath need not have died; she might still have been in the neat little house on Hope Street, there in case Krystal needed her, offering a refuge with a comfortable clean-sheeted bed, the tiny kitchen full of food and mismatched china, and the little TV in the corner of the sitting room: I don' wanna watch no filth, Krystal, turn that off. Krystal had liked Sukhvinder, but Sukhvinder's mother had killed Nana Cath. You did not differentiate between members of an enemy tribe. It had been Krystal's avowed intention to pulverize Sukhvinder; but then Tessa Wall had intervened. Krystal could not remember the details of what Tessa had told her; but it seemed that Fats had got the story wrong or, at least, not exactly right. She had given Tessa a grudging promise not to go after Sukhvinder, but such promises could only ever be stop-gaps in Krystal's frantic ever-changing world. ‘Put it down!' Krystal shouted at Robbie, because he was trying to prise the lid off the biscuit tin where Terri kept her works. Krystal snatched the tin from him and held it in her hands like a living creature, something that would fight to stay alive, whose destruction would have tremendous consequences. There was a scratched picture on the lid: a carriage with luggage piled high on the roof, drawn through the snow by four chestnut horses, a coachman in a top hat carrying a bugle. She carried the tin upstairs with her, while Terri sat in the kitchen smoking, and hid it in her bedroom. Robbie trailed after her. ‘Wanna go play park.' She sometimes took him and pushed him on the swings and the roundabout. ‘Not today, Robbie.' He whined until she shouted at him to shut up. Later, when it was dark – after Krystal had made Robbie his tea of spaghetti hoops and given him a bath; when the funeral was long since over – Obbo rapped on the front door. Krystal saw him from Robbie's bedroom window and tried to get there first, but Terri beat her to it. ‘All righ', Ter?' he said, over the threshold before anyone had invited him in. †Eard you was lookin' fer me las' week.' Although she had told him to stay put, Robbie had followed Krystal downstairs. She could smell his shampooed hair over the smell of fags and stale sweat that clung to Obbo in his ancient leather jacket. Obbo had had a few; when he leered at her, she smelt the beer fumes. ‘All righ', Obbo?' said Terri, with the note in her voice Krystal never heard otherwise. It was conciliating, accommodating; it conceded that he had rights in their house. ‘Where you bin, then?' ‘Bristol,' he said. ‘How's you, Ter?' ‘She don' wan' nuthin',' said Krystal. He blinked at her through his thick glasses. Robbie was clutching Krystal's leg so tightly that she could feel his nails in her skin. ‘Oo's this, Ter?' asked Obbo. ‘Yer mum?' Terri laughed. Krystal glared at him, Robbie's grip tight on her thigh. Obbo's bleary gaze dropped to him. ‘An' ‘ow's me boy?' ‘He ain' your fuckin' boy,' said Krystal. †Ow d'you know?' Obbo asked her quietly, grinning. ‘Fuck off. She don' wan' nuthin'. Tell ‘im,' Krystal virtually shouted at Terri. ‘Tell ‘im you don' wan' nuthin'.' Daunted, caught between two wills much stronger than her own, Terri said, †E on'y come rounda see – ‘ ‘No, ‘e ain't,' said Krystal. ‘No, ‘e fuckin' ain't. Tell ‘im. She don' wan' nuthin',' she said fiercely into Obbo's grinning face. ‘She's bin off it fer weeks.' ‘Is tha' right, Terri?' said Obbo, still smiling. ‘Yeah, it is,' said Krystal, when Terri did not answer. ‘She's still at Bellchapel.' ‘Noffur much longer,' said Obbo. ‘Fuck off,' said Krystal, outraged. ‘Closin' it,' said Obbo. ‘Are they?' said Terri in sudden panic. ‘They ain't, are they?' ‘Course they are,' said Obbo. ‘Cuts, innit?' ‘You don't know nuthin',' Krystal told Obbo. ‘It's bollocks,' she told her mother. ‘They ‘aven' said nuthin', ‘ave they?' ‘Cuts,' repeated Obbo, patting his bulging pockets for cigarettes. ‘We got the case review,' Krystal reminded Terri. ‘Yeh can't use. Yeh can't.' ‘Wha's that?' asked Obbo, fiddling with his lighter, but neither woman enlightened him. Terri met her daughter's gaze for a bare two seconds; her eyes fell, reluctantly, to Robbie in his pyjamas, still clinging tightly to Krystal's leg. ‘Yeah, I wuz gonna go ter bed, Obbo,' she mumbled, without looking at him. ‘I'll mebbe see yer another time.' ‘I ‘eard your Nan died,' he said. ‘Cheryl wuz tellin' me.' Pain contorted Terri's face; she looked as old as Nana Cath herself. ‘Yeah, I'm goin' ter bed. C'mon, Robbie. Come wi' me, Robbie.' Robbie did not want to let go of Krystal while Obbo was still there. Terri held out her claw-like hand. ‘Yeah, go on, Robbie,' Krystal urged him. In certain moods, Terri clutched her son like a teddy bear; better Robbie than smack. ‘Go on. Go wi' Mum.' He was reassured by something in Krystal's voice, and allowed Terri to take him upstairs. ‘See yeh,' said Krystal, without looking at Obbo, but stalking away from him into the kitchen, pulling the last of Fats Wall's roll-ups out of her pocket and bending to light it off the gas ring. She heard the front door close and felt triumphant. Fuck him. ‘You got a lovely arse, Krystal.' She jumped so violently that a plate slipped off the heaped side and smashed on the filthy floor. He had not gone, but had followed her. He was staring at her chest in its tight T-shirt. ‘Fuck off,' she said. ‘Big girl, intcha?' ‘Fuck off.' ‘I ‘eard you give it away free,' said Obbo, closing in. ‘You could make better money'n yer mum.' ‘Fuck – ‘ His hand was on her left breast. She tried to knock it away; he seized her wrist in his other hand. Her lit cigarette grazed his face and he punched her, twice, to the side of the head; more plates shattered on the filthy floor and then, as they wrestled, she slipped and fell; the back of her head smacked on the floor, and he was on top of her: she could feel his hand at the waistband of her tracksuit bottoms, pulling. ‘No – fuck – no!' His knuckles in her belly as he undid his own flies – she tried to scream and he smacked her across the face – the smell of him was thick in her nostrils as he growled in her ear, ‘Fuckin' shout and I'll cut yer.' He was inside her and it hurt; she could hear him grunting and her own tiny whimper; she was ashamed of the noise she made, so frightened and so small. He came and clambered off her. At once she pulled up her tracksuit bottoms and jumped up to face him, tears pouring down her face as he leered at her. ‘I'll tell Mist' Fairbrother,' she heard herself sob. She did not know where it came from. It was a stupid thing to say. ‘The fuck's he?' Obbo tugged up his flies, lit a cigarette, taking his time, blocking her exit. ‘You fuckin' ‘im too, are yeh? Little slapper.' He sauntered up the hall and was gone. She was shaking as she had never done in her life. She thought she might be sick; she could smell him all over her. The back of her head throbbed; there was a pain inside her, and wetness seeping into her pants. She ran out of the room into the living room and stood, shivering, with her arms wrapped around herself; then she knew a moment of terror, that he would come back, and hurried to the front door to lock it. Back in the sitting room she found a long stub in the ashtray and lit it. Smoking, shaking and sobbing, she sank into Terri's usual chair, then jumped up because she heard footsteps on the stairs: Terri had reappeared, looking confused and wary. ‘Wha'ssa matter with you?' Krystal gagged on the words. ‘He jus' – he jus' fucked me.' ‘Wha'?' said Terri. ‘Obbo – ‘e jus' – ‘ †E wouldn'.' It was the instinctive denial with which Terri met all of life: he wouldn't, no, I never, no, I didn't. Krystal flew at her and pushed her; emaciated as she was, Terri crumpled backwards into the hall, shrieking and swearing; Krystal ran to the door she had just locked, fumbled to unfasten it and wrenched it open. Still sobbing, she was twenty yards along the dark street before she realized that Obbo might be waiting out here, watching. She cut across a neighbour's garden at a run and took a zig-zag route through back ways in the direction of Nikki's house, and all the time the wetness spread in her pants and she thought she might throw up. Krystal knew that it was rape, what he had done. It had happened to Leanne's older sister in the car park of a nightclub in Bristol. Some people would have gone to the police, she knew that; but you did not invite the police into your life when your mother was Terri Weedon. I'll tell Mist' Fairbrother. Her sobs came faster and faster. She could have told Mr Fairbrother. He had known what real life was like. One of his brothers had done time. He had told Krystal stories of his youth. It had not been like her youth – nobody was as low as her, she knew that – but like Nikki's, like Leanne's. Money had run out; his mother had bought her council house and then been unable to keep up the payments; they had lived for a while in a caravan lent by an uncle. Mr Fairbrother took care of things; he sorted things out. He had come to their house and talked to Terri about Krystal and rowing, because there had been an argument and Terri was refusing to sign forms for Krystal to go away with the team. He had not been disgusted, or he had not shown it, which came to the same thing. Terri, who liked and trusted nobody, had said, †E seems all righ',' and she had signed. Mr Fairbrother had once said to her, ‘It'll be tougher for you than these others, Krys; it was tougher for me. But you can do better. You don't have to go the same way.' He had meant working hard at school and stuff, but it was too late for that and, anyway, it was all bollocks. How would reading help her now? ‘Ow's me boy? He ain' your fuckin' boy. ‘Ow d'you know? Leanne's sister had had to get the morning-after pill. Krystal would ask Leanne about the pill and go and get it. She could not have Obbo's baby. The thought of it made her retch. I gotta get out of here. She thought fleetingly of Kay, and then discarded her: as bad as the police, to tell a social worker that Obbo walked in and out of their house, raping people. She would take Robbie for sure, if she knew that. A clear lucid voice in Krystal's head was speaking to Mr Fairbrother, who was the only adult who had ever talked to her the way she needed, unlike Mrs Wall, so well-intentioned and so blinkered, and Nana Cath, refusing to hear the whole truth. I gotta get Robbie out of here. How can I get away? I gotta get away. Her one sure refuge, the little house in Hope Street, was already being gobbled up by squabbling relatives †¦ She scurried around a corner underneath a street lamp, looking over her shoulder in case he was watching her, following. And then the answer came to her, as though Mr Fairbrother had shown her the way. If she got knocked up by Fats Wall, she would be able to get her own place from the council. She would be able to take Robbie to live with her and the baby if Terri used again. And Obbo would never enter her house, not ever. There would be bolts and chains and locks on the door, and her house would be clean, always clean, like Nana Cath's house. Half running along the dark street, Krystal's sobs slowed and subsided. The Walls would probably give her money. They were like that. She could imagine Tessa's plain, concerned face, bending over a cot. Krystal would have their grandchild. She would lose Fats in getting pregnant; they always went, once you were expecting; she had watched it happen nearly every time in the Fields. But perhaps he would be interested; he was so strange. It did not much matter to her either way. Her interest in him, except as the essential component in her plan, had dwindled to almost nothing. What she wanted was the baby: the baby was more than a means to an end. She liked babies; she had always loved Robbie. She would keep the two of them safe, together; she would be like a better, kinder, younger Nana Cath to her family. Anne-Marie might come and visit, once she was away from Terri. Their children would be cousins. A very vivid image of herself and Anne-Marie came to Krystal; they were standing at the school gates of St Thomas's in Pagford, waving off two little girls in pale blue dresses and ankle socks. The lights were on in Nikki's house, as they always were. Krystal broke into a run.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019


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Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Marketing Plan: Product and Performance Essay

Marketing Plan: Product and Performance Essay

Executive SummaryMobility, latest trends and technologies are three most significant factors that customer seek today when they walk-in in an electronic item’s outlet. Years before the journey of technology started out from the calculator the most basic computer as we call it. Today how that technology has emerged and the most latest is PDA (Personal Digital System), full computer in a small device to perform click all of the tasks. New Nokia Mobile phone has all the features of a desktop computer, no need of a laptop.You get your product to begin with.The english major source in use during cricket matches, exercising in the morning and during traveling for work or school. 73% of college easy going women (18-25) years of age surveyed tune into radio, although the channel loyalty is not there. The most frequent listening occurs after dinner time.This is different from male portable radio listeners as the FM channels are replacing cassettes as a music source while driving, o ther survey shows that second one of the popular source of music are the FM stations, FM 89, 91 and 106.Finding the demographics of your target marketplace will permit you to good tailor the launch strategy to the folks.

180 million), 16.667% of Pakistanis are young. Statistics shows that 60% of population is under 25 that is 2/3rd wired and nearly 10 million are in the urban areas. GEN X and GEN Y is the most experienced  and accessed generation in the human history.A merchandise is a new product procured or produced by the business to meet with the requirements of the customer.Our Secondary objective is to make good profits and make few more products like this with working hand in hand with the fashion and our way would be walking extract from earrings to necklaces, bracelets and other fashion accessories.Marketing ResearchMethods of Data collection:Basically there are two methods of data collection:1) Primary Data2) Secondary DataPrimary Data Collection:Primary available Data is that data which is collected specifically for the project at hand. The primary data for our assignment resulted from the unstructured interviews that we conducted from different many friends and family members and also many strangers.Secondary Data Collection:Secondary Data is that data, which has already been collected for some other purpose but can be used as reference material.The aim is getting your product into the industry although delivery methods vary widely based on the product.

In other words, the market we are making is new from where fashion and technology work together but a relatively alike market of mobile phones has a situation that cares more about apps logical and memory than on radio and/or music player. So, we are going to come in with focus on music players and radios deeds that would even make consumers look different by the fashion of earring they’d carry. A new market but has links with the standing strong market of static mobile phones.The ProductIntroduction of product:Now days, mobility is becoming an important factor in electronic devices.A superb product isnt simple to define since itll mean things.Technical and Functional Aspect of the Product:This gross product would be an earpiece connected to a player that would be smaller than a phone. Both the devices would be connected via Bluetooth. Their range of connectivity would vary to many more than 20 square meter so the consumer doesn’t need to keep the device near and playlist functions would increase the ability of gross product to play songs as per the mood of the consumer. Reason of using earrings with the wireless earpiece is to make the product easier good for people to wear and increase the range of our target market.To start with, youre mindful of how much it costs to create your merchandise.

Issue: How to identify the potential outlets?Mission statement:â€Å"We are the followers of the latest trend we strongly believe that fashion develops, we provide the best and quality is never compromised. Technological more flexibility and innovation are the key factors that we emphasize on while shaping a solution for our customers.† Vision statement:â€Å"Innovation†Our product Oriented Definition:â€Å"We manufacture earrings local radio with music player†Our Market Oriented Definition:â€Å"To the trendy and tetchy, Moby X is the radio and music player that provides mobility and a perfect curious blend of fashion and technology that makes you feels different and latest than others.†Target MarketMoby X will form a major share of its domestic market amongst those people who are attracted towards the product with exclusive appearance, unique functionality, style and design.Describe the way your target marketplace free will get your merchandise and also how youll market your goods.The mini chip radio and music player in the earrings itself is fascinating and will communicate on its own towards the people who are engrossed through mini products.Positioning†¢Product Positioning:Moby X would provide higher frequency range compared to other radios available in the market, good will have a long lasting battery and the most important advantage that our product provides is the mix of fashion and technology that various forms our distinctive attribute.Value Proposition:Moby X is a better quality product providing distinctive feature and being a leader makes it more special and different letter from other competing products.  LAPCO using latest Japanese technologies is most reliable and durable.In the product description, you should explain what product or your service is, the particular thrust of apply your strategy and the strategies thatll be used to do your own objectives.

†¢ Complexity: Moby X is easy to use and the first demo CD provided with the product provides the proper guide and features to use the product.†¢ Divisibility: Moby X is an expensive product and initially no discounted rates can be offered.†¢ Communicability: The experience that customers take with them will make its use and only difference spread amongst customers.Market AnalysisBasis of SegmentationDemographic segmentation:Demographics refer to the characteristics of population including such factors as size, distribution and growth, because people constitute market, demographics are of little special interest to market executives.In the end, it is not mysterious and youll be able position to promote your company or to manage a person to deal with advertising for you once you understand how pieces fit together.Any one lying in the income bracket of Rs 50,000+ can afford this productPsychographic Segmentation:The psychographics of the Moby X can be analyzed by r eviewing the advertisement. The lifestyle shown in Moby X advertisements portray successful, sophisticated, professional women who are active energetic and full of life. Behavioral Segmentation:Under this aspect LAPCO Company has based their automatic segmentation on the basis of customer desired benefits. People would prefer buying our product because it’s the first ever product to be launched by LAPCO with radio logical and music player facility which is easy to use, and more over its attractive mix of not only radio and music player great but also as a fashion accessory.The plan has to be accessible to any employee at any given moment.

Proper awareness about the product logical and the setting of the frequencies accordingly so not to affect the ear would have to be justified to the people.Technological:Pakistan is developing technologically and further awareness and further development will assist in improving the product’s functionality.Competitor AssessmentCOMPETITOR ANALYSISMoby X is competing in portable media industry.Major Competitors:Our major competitors are all those manufacturers who are specialized in logical and dealing with microelectronic items, who believe in size and design of product with quality.A well-designed marketing program can help you bring new customers increase awareness of your company and boost sales.COMPETITIVE STRATEGIESDifferentiation:Moby X is an innovation in the arena of radios and all kinds of classical music players. It gives connectivity to the outside world in a way that adds value and beauty to the face.Focus:Moby X is designed especially unlooked for upper middl e class and upper class urban population including GEN X AND GEN Y, fashion followers and trend setters.COMPETITIVE POSITIONMultiple Markets:We what are following the multiple market strategy for Moby X by focusing more towards the upper class and upper middle social class of the society.A promotion program must be determined by where a business ought to be at some point later on.

Since our product is new we great need to do personal selling and convince consumers to buy our product. Then eventually as we gain a foot hold in the market we will have retailers selling our product.Marketing StrategyMARKETING MIXPRODUCT CLASSIFICATION:Moby X is broadly classified as consumer product and under this category we define it as a own specialty product because it is a perfect mix of style and technology. It involves strong brand preference and loyalty, special purchase efforts by consumers, little comparison of brands and low price sensitivity.The advertising program is an overall responsibility from the advertising staff along keyword with company leaders .It includes 3 years’ money back warranty and a pair of fabulous earrings along with the product. Customers are encouraged to fair share their views about the buying experience of the product and after sale experience through surveys conducted at the outlets. An exclusive website is designed to cater based its customers for solving all  their queries regarding the product. Online purchasing service is also available.Face it is a chore.

3 years (Limited) Warranty.Size – (1/3x 1/3 x 3/8) mm is the size of radio chip. 30 x 20 x 5 mm is the size of the earring. Weight – 1/2 oz is the low weight of the earring radio.Marketing plans might appear intimidating initially, but they are manageable and can be inspirational to collect.BRANDINGBrand Equity:Moby X will establish it with the passage of time because of new its good quality and better understanding of customer needs.Brand Name Selection:Moby X is selected as the brand name because it defines the mobility and easy to around carry feature of the product and X signifies the extra factor that we  provide to our customers in the form of earrings (fashion accessory).Brand Sponsorship:LAPCO is manufacturer’s brand.Brand Development:No extension.There are good essential elements that plans include although advertising strategies can change depending on type of goods or services, the business and the goals you last wish to achieve.

Free demo CD is also given. Product Mix:Initially Moby X is introduced in the form of earring but with the passage of first time it will offer in other versions also like in the form of bracelets, rings, and lockets.Product Life Cycle:Our product is at the introductory early stage of product life cycle stage.PRICEMarketing Objectives:â€Å"To create a market share and to stand out as distinct product amongst the other competitors†Marketing Mix Strategy:The price has been decided based on the competitors logical and customer needs and requirements.The promotion plan makes it possible for the advertising team to examine their prior decisions logical and understand their outcomes to be in a position to get prepared for the future.PRODUCT PRICING STRATEGYComparing competitor’s pricingCompetitorPriceSinclair XI Button RadioRs. 2304.93FM Mini Radios Rs.719.3500.PLACEMENTThe product would be sold through â€Å"Indirect Marketing Intermediary†. The product will be sold through push strategy that is product would be first distributed to the wholesalers and then to retailer. The retailers would assist in creating contact with the other retailers which would expand the network and add value.

Newspaper:Moby X is an expensive and new product. There is need to create awareness amongst people that such a product exists. ‘Dawn’ newspaper would be a better choice to advertise being one for the most popular newspapers in Pakistan. A full page would be dedicated to advertise the product providing  a detail know how of the features and distinctive attributes.Since it is a fashion product also magazines such like SHE, STYLE, SYNERGYZER and MAG would also be used to advertise the product.Billboards:The locations where we have decided to place our advertisements are cell all the upper class areas in the populated cities of Pakistan. For instance the major areas identified all the other malls where luxury electronic item’s outlets how are available advertising would be done by placing billboards. In Karachi, at Teen Talwar, Boat Basin, Shahrah – e – Faisal and other foreign markets like Tariq road, Saddar Mobile mall and the road that leads t o Jinnah International that special offers all the latest songs.Sales Promotion:One free pair of earring apart from the one already provided in the package would be given with the product.Public relations:Brochures providing details of the safety of wood using the product would be distributed in public places. Articles about the working and flexibility in use would be published in a leading magazine to inform the public about the safety in using this product.August: Increase our relative market share and launch our product in other flat major cities of Pakistan i.e. Lahore, Islamabad.September: We will start an integrated internet campaign targeting young college students.