Monday, September 30, 2019
Recent studies show that there is an increasing rate of illiteracy all over the world. A study conducted by WSI (World Statistics Institute) shows that over 27% of people are illiterate globally. Another study by the same institute shows that the speed at which the illiteracy rate ascends is 32% [32% of what?]. These rates are quite important, as illiteracy has terrible effects on society. The most important effect of illiteracy on society is that it works as an inhibitor. That is to say, the more illiterate people there are in a country, the harder it will be for the country to develop. This fact could be clarified with an example: America (whose illiteracy rate is below 5%) and Canada (illiteracy rate: around 8%) are developed countries, whereas countries like Turkey and Iran (illiteracy rates: 61% and 43% in order [respectively]) are undeveloped countries. Illiteracy has got a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"geneticÃ¢â¬ effect. The children of illiterate people are more likely to be illiterate than those who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t [arenÃ¢â¬â¢t what? Ã¢â¬â rewrite this sentence to make it clear]. Even if the parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t want their children to be illiterate, their children, observing the parents, see that they somehow manage to live and adopt the idea that illiteracy isnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually a bad thing [not very clearly expressed Ã¢â¬â try a rewrite]. And since people develop most of their character during childhood, they choose to go with illiteracy. Another major effect of illiteracy is that illiterate people believe in the said things easily. They do not investigate what was said or told to them. When looked [looking] at the pages of history, it can be seen that while mostÃ¢â¬ ¦ [continues] Prev Page Next Page Search
Sunday, September 29, 2019
HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s Fatal Flaw was that he had a hard time carrying out his plans. Many times did Hamlet plan on doing things, yet he did not carry out these plans. Hamlet was not a bad guy, but more of a tragic hero. In the opening scenes of the play, the Ghost of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s father reveals the truth about his death to his son. He tells Hamlet to avenge his tragic murder. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s response seems like he has quick plans to carry out his fathers wishing, by saying Ã¢â¬Å"Haste me to knowÃ¢â¬â¢t that I with winds as swiftÃ¢â¬ Ã ¦ May sweep to my revenge.Ã¢â¬ (p. 29 lines 27-29) Unfortunately, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to act on his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s extortion has him reluctant to kill the King Claudius by the end of that very scene, when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"This time is out of joint, O cursed spite, that I was ever born to set it right.Ã¢â¬ (p. 35 lines 197-198) Here, Hamlet is already having doubts and wishing that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the one that had to carry out the revenge for his father. Obviously Hamlet has real problems when it comes down to dealing with things. As the play goes on, Hamlet still has not done a thing to avenge his father. In act II, scene 2, Hamlet decides that before he can avenge his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, he must make sure that the Ghost was telling the truth. This simply gives Hamlet more excuse to procrastinate. Hamlet makes a plan to have a play in which he will test the kings reaction to. The play would be about a king who is murdered by someone putting poison into his ear. Then the murderer becomes king and is loved by the fallen kings wife. Just as it was for Claudius who killed the king and took his wife. When the play is seem by Claudius, Claudius becomes outraged and ends the play. Hamlet knows now that Cladius is guilty. Even here, hamlet is speaking to his friend Guilderstern and says Ã¢â¬Å"I lack advancementÃ¢â¬ (p. 81 line 338) when his friend asks what is wrong with him. I think that Hamlet knows his flaw but he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t act on it. In act III, scene 3, Hamlet is ready to kill the king, but stops himself because the king is praying. Hamlet thinks that because the king is praying that if he killed him now the king would go to heaven. He decides yet again to delay avenging his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder, this time until he can kill the King while he is in a vile condition, such as Ã¢â¬Å"When he is drunk asleep; or in his rage; Or in the incestuous pleasure of his bed.Ã¢â¬ (p. 87 lines 89-90) Later,Ã Hamlet even proclaims; Ã¢â¬Å"How all occasions do inform against me, and spur my dull revenge.Ã¢â¬ (p. 104 lines 33-34) In the end of the play, we see that HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to act causes his tragic demise. Hamlets failure to revenge his father when he should have, costs him not only his life, but also his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s. In the final scene, Hamlet duels with Laertes, who has conspired with the King to kill Hamlet. In the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to kill Hamlet, he accidentally poisons the Queen. Laertes delivers the fatal wound to Hamlet with a sword dipped in a deadly poison and it is only with his final life breath that Hamlet finally kills the King. So, Hamlet has finally killed the king, but not by going out and killing the king like he said, but with a poison the king made himself to kill Hamlet. But it would be okay to say that Hamlet avenged his father, and his fathers later wish for the queen to be left to die without Hamlet killing her. Both HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s and his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s names are cleared too. Basically, everything is made clear to the people and besides HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s sad death, everyone who deserved to die or be killed, was killed. Hamlet obviously wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have made a good king anyways, without the ability to act on your own wishes, you would never rule a kingdom very well.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Hayek and alfred marshal - Assignment Example While the price system has the disadvantages of its own, itÃ¢â¬â¢s should still be thought of as a marvel of the economically driven coordination. Hayek explains that the contrast exists between the natural and social sciences. In the sciences of the natural type, if advances are to be made, scientists should recognise that things are actually not what they might seem. Science undoubtedly dissolves the existing categories of subjective experience only to replace them with causes that are hidden and lie beneath the surface. Hayek believes that contrary to this principle the study of society ought to take to use as its raw material the subjective ideas and beliefs expressed by members of the society. To illustrate, Hayek says, Ã¢â¬Å"the position of man, midway between natural and social phenomena (...) brings it about that the essential basic facts which we need for explanation of social phenomena are part of the common experience, part of the stuff of our thinkingÃ¢â¬ (Hayek 126). In brief, one should perceive the society in relation to the role of menÃ¢â¬â¢s conscious reflection of the done actions. While people in a soc iety are all the time choosing among a variety of choices of how to act, in a collective sense the outcome is an unintended result of decisions taken consciously. Central planning is a wrong way to shape the social economic order. Hayek is against centralization, when economic planning is carried out by one authority over the system, but thinks that this economic planning has to be distributed among many individuals. Based on his review of the MiseÃ¢â¬â¢s work, Hayek agrees that rational calculation, applicable to an economic order, has been made impossible by socialism the way Hayek saw it functioning in practice. Indeed, central direction of the overall economic activity at once at distribution of the income that is not dependent on private property in the situation when output is greater than production is doomed to failure. Yet,
Friday, September 27, 2019
Evolution - Lab Report Example The major tool used in this biological experiment was a specially programmed computer application (automated) that enables adjustment of variables from default figures and when run, accurate results on the changes that has occurred in the biological structures of living organisms were shown. These results are therefore used to justify the hypothesis. In the first experiment, when the independent variable (precipitation) is adjusted to higher levels, the birds evolve smaller beaks. This is because when precipitation is high then the seeds become softer and the birds slowly adjust to the changes of nature until the fully adapt. On the other hand when precipitation is low, the seeds become harder and the need for additional force to crack the seeds arise and based similar principle; the birds evolve stronger and larger beaks over time (Sober, 2008). This adjustment may not favor some birds as the adaptation and evolution process is gradual and therefore may lead to death of individuals that are unable to adjust effectively to the changes of nature. Natural selection can influence variation of a trait in a population in three major forms namely; diversifying, directional and stabilizing forms (Sober, 2008). In the second experiment, it is clearly evident that changes in the environmental conditions favors the individuals with specific phenotypes. When important parameters that influence natural selection such as precipitation is manipulated (adjusted to 50cm/year and 0cm/year on Wallace Island and Darwin Island respectively), it is noted with great significance that only a few individuals are able to survive and continue reproducing in an environment with low precipitation. This is because of the variation in biological and environmental factors that are very significant for natural selection. Therefore for a period of 300 years, these changes will influence the evolution of Finch beaks and in turn affect their population. This fact can be justified by the graphs
Thursday, September 26, 2019
When should we trust our senses to give us truth - Essay Example The hurdles are aplenty but the need is to remain steadfast so that truth could be discerned in the least possible time. The resources available at our disposal for finding out this truth are significant since these are the primary actors which play a quintessential role at making us understand what the truth is, if at all, we can come to know what it is, in the first place. Trusting our senses for gaining the ultimate truth that we seek is like trying to understand the very notion related with the ascertainment of truth. It is a difficult process to find out what actually goes behind the scenes as far as the truth building mechanisms is concerned. However one thing is for sure Ã¢â¬â truth only comes about when the time is right. This has to be backed up by the right series of events and changing time periods, all of which play a significant role in telling us the real truth Ã¢â¬â a subject upon which we base our paradigms of happiness, sorrow and hope. Trusting our different senses to provide us the truth is difficult to achieve because at times the picture in front of us looks gloomy and thus we are not able to properly comprehend the real meaning which is hidden behind the image. We interpret different things and that too of a complex nature. However the picture is straightforward and it is our lack of attention to detail which makes us go hayw ire during such discussions. Truth is merely the right ingredient of our understanding plus the manner in which we interpret the different series of events. Now if we understand what essentially truth is, we will also delve deep into how it has come about and what it will offer to us with the changing times Ã¢â¬â the most sought after details related with its attached impediments. Truth usually never comes alone. It has different issues underlying the presence of truth in essence and hence this truth becomes all the more difficult to comprehend once it is in sight of the people for which it is of paramount
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The Saturation Mixing Ratio - Coursework Example What is the dew-point temperature of a kilogram of air when a psychrometer measures an 8oC dry bulb temperature and a 6oC wet bulb reading? What is the dew-point temperature of a kilogram of air when a psychrometer measures an 8oC dry bulb temperature and a 6oC wet bulb reading? Dew-point temperature= 3.0oCQ3 Explain the principles that govern the operation of a psychrometer for determining relative humidity? The psychrometer deploys two thermometers which are mounted side by side. One is covered by a piece of wet cloth. In operation, they have spun around and then the wet bulb is allowed to dry for approximately one minute. Because air evaporates faster in the dry air when the results of both thermometers are compared it allows for an accurate reading of humidity and dew-point levels within the air.Q4 Describe the adiabatic process and how it is responsible for causing condensation in the atmosphere?Ã Summary Report PageSummary Report PageQ1 a. Liquid water changes to water vapor by the process called evaporation. b. Cold air has the greatest saturation mixing ratio. c. Lowering the air temperature will increase the relative humidity. d. At the dew-point temperature, the relative humidity is 100%. e. When condensation occurs, heat is released by water vapor. f. Rising air cools by expansion. g. In the early morning hours when the daily air temperature is often coolest, relative humidity is generally at its highest.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Ten commandments of the environment - Essay Example This means striking a fair balance between respecting nature and not exploiting it to such an extent that it is depleted and ensuring that respecting nature does not completely restrict manÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to take advantage of technology. By taking this approach all living creatures benefit from the responsible conservation of the environment and at the same time benefits from the responsible use of modern technology. Question 3: Respect for the human person is preserved in advances in technology when we create and maintain harmony between the two. In other words we do not permit modern technology to dehumanize us. For example, social networking is one way of permitting responsible use of modern technology as it permits human interaction across borders in ways that were not possible in previous years. Friends and family separated by miles can maintain instantaneous communications on social networking sites such as Facebook or Twitter. Therefore technology can be used to close the social gap created by commercial and technological realties. Question 4: From the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective nature is a gift and therefore not something to be worshiped. There must be a distinction between worship and respect. Man was furnished with the Ã¢â¬Å"human intelligence and moral responsibilityÃ¢â¬ to know to what extent the ecosystem can be altered so that its Ã¢â¬Å"order and beautyÃ¢â¬ is respected and at the same time ensuring that altering the ecosystem is done for the benefit of all creatures (Zenit Staff Writer 2008). Question 5: Reconciling ecological concerns with economic development mean engaging in what is commonly referred to as sustainable development. In other words, economic or commercial projects should take into account the damages that those projects cause to the environment and developing ways of production and use that preserve the environment. For instance
Monday, September 23, 2019
Choose an artist (painter, sculptor, or architect) from the Renaissance Era to - Research Paper Example The era witnessed a complete new pattern of color scheme, theme, motif and formation that the European history of art has never witnessed before. Renaissance art became a distinct school of art and with its deviation from its predecessors and evolved almost as a new genre of art form. Renaissance as a concept evoked the Ã¢â¬Å"rebirthÃ¢â¬ of the ancient tradition and with this perception; this genre of art took classical antiquity as the foundation of its art form. However, the artists associated with the school transformed the tradition by incorporating modern techniques pertaining to science which was witnessed as the recent developments during the period in the northern half of the Europe. This was manifested by the use of contemporary scientific knowledge and techniques. Gradually Renaissance art amalgamated with Renaissance Humanist Philosophy and as a coherent and integrated form spread throughout the continent of Europe. This newer concept influenced not only the artists an d the sculptors but also greatly moved their patrons who started taking great interest in the new form of painting. With the explicit use of newer techniques and developed artistic sensibilities, the Renaissance art stands as a milestone in the trajectory of the history of art as the Europe witnessed a transition from the mediaeval period to an early modern age (Hartt, 1970). Leonardo da Vinci: The Great Renaissance Painter Leonardo da Vinci, a multi-faceted archetypal Renaissance man was a genius. He was at the same time, a painter, sculptor, artist, scientist, botanist, architect, musician, writer, engineer, inventor, mathematician, anatomist, geologist and cartographer. His Ã¢â¬Å"unquenchable curiosityÃ¢â¬ launched him to a paradigm of genius (Gardner, 1970, pp. 450-456).Ã He was well known for his feverish inventive bent of mind and imagination. Born in the year 1452, Vinci illuminated the world and served the society with all his expertise from myriad domains till the ye ar 1519. Leonardo da Vinci is considered to be the greatest painter and perhaps the most widely and diversely talented personality of all times (IEEE, n.d.). Helen Gardner, the famous art historian visions about the great man in the following words, Ã¢â¬Å"the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote" (Gardner, 1970, pp. 450-456).Ã But Marco Rosci contends that the vision of Leonardo should not be considered as something mysterious, rather it is essentially logical in the eyes of Rosci and he believed that the empirical methods which Leonardo employed were unusual in his contemporary era (Rosci, 1977, p. 8). Leonardo da Vinci is primarily known for his path-breaking Renaissance paintings. Leonardo is well-known for his supreme masterpieces which despite of his diversified expertise has captivated his name and fame even after four hundred years of his survival. LeonardoÃ¢â¬â ¢s paintings as a product from the school of Renaissance painting is always appreciated and discussed at a great length by the patron, connoisseurs and critics of art. The explicit use of light and his detailed knowledge of anatomy which he used extensively in his paintings reached the masterpieces at a different dimension. His knowledge of botany and geology also becomes evident through his paintings and his interest on physiognomy well reflected through the minute lines and curves his paintings bear. The greatest
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Common Accreditation Standards in Hotels Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words
Common Accreditation Standards in Hotels - Essay Example These policies are based on improving infrastructure, affordable and luxuries transport facilities and above all luxuries accommodations. Accommodation is a serious issue because not only tourists, VIP's, foreign government officials, celebrities visiting a country all need hotels for accommodation. Thus the basic criterion to impress visitors, guests or tourists is to provide them with a choice of hotels which maintain certain standard of luxury. UK is one of the territories that attracts a large number of tourists, celebrities, government officials and hence, it needs a variety of accommodations. People from different strata's of world come to visit the United Kingdom. Thus, to improve the standards of hotels and to grade hotels the government of the United Kingdom have deduced a way known as common accreditation standard aimed at grading the UK's hotels. A certification is an external evaluation of a hotel by a third- party to achieve certification by the third party that the organization is providing certain amount of luxury and comfort. This certification is verified by an authoritative body they verify the competence of those doing the certifying or auditing. The accreditation is common of services like health care services, educational services and hotel services. The accreditation process is a procedure which not only focuses that the hotels maintain minimum criteria of comfort and luxury but accreditation model includes several elements that promote quality improvement. (Christine et al, 149) In the case of hotels, the process of accreditations is divided into two sections. The first one reviews the hotels operation's satisfy the specific minimum quality criteria. While the second procedure of accreditation is to check weather training programs satisfy the specified minimum quality criteria. Hotels Operation's The accreditation process evaluates hotels operations from every section and subsection. The location of a hotel is an important aspect the hotel, it should be at a place from were transportation is easily available, located at a place from were all famous sights must be close by. The facade, architectural features and general construction of the building shall have distinctive qualities. Bedroom should be of a decent size, inclusive of bathrooms. There shall be one suite per thirty guest rooms. All rooms must have bathrooms which shall be equipped with fittings of the highest quality befitting a with 24-hour service of hot and cold running water. Then there should be other equipments like telephones, television refrigerator in working conditions. There shall be a 24-hour room service. (Carla and Petty, 38) Housekeeping shall be of the highest possible standard. There shall be plentiful supply of linens, blankets, towels, etc., which shall be of the highest quality and shall be spotlessly clean. The linens, blankets and towels shall be changed daily. Laundry and dry cleaning services shall be available in the establishment. All public and private rooms shall have superior quality carpeting which shall be well kept at all times. There shall be a coffee shop and at least one specialty dining room which are well-equipped, well-furnished and well-maintained, serving high quality cuisine and providing entertainment.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Ajax Minerals and Perrier Essay Ajax Minerals and Perrier 1. Identify two (2) sources of resistance to change in the Ajax Minerals exercise and describe how the organization dealt with each type of resistance. Ajax mining association had been trying their hardest all the way, it also has confronted a few issues. The administration had been seeing that in the middle of three to four years, Pacific Rim association could mine alongside shipping comparative Minerals to US and such things could present more prominent rivalry for the Ajax. The administration has been ready to do something on sudden premise even though it has confronted a few difficulties. Since there had been the correspondence hole among the administration and laborers, by this way specialists didnt give a second thought of the current position of the association alongside those difficulties, which the administration had been confronting. Management saw danger alongside simply that they had been mindful about that. Managers alongside of the rest of the specialists of the associations who had been chipping away at hourly premise may not see such risk about rivalry. Also they had been of the conviction that the associations had been running in the remarkable position along with them and there had been no trouble being confronted through Management. They may very well see that associations work had been going round the clock and in addition this had been profiting inside the business. Second issue, which the association had been confronting at the risky stage, had been poorer relationship among Management furthermore work. There had been the history in the Ajax of terrible run changes. Pessimism stirs inside the working group alongside there had not been backing from any side to anyone. Situation deteriorated thereafter, that even while Management has chosen of doing anything of that,Ã laborers used getting suspicious of Managements choices alongside they may start suspecting that associations had been going to influence them most exceedingly bad either with respect to pay or as to alternate offices. On account of those issues, Management realized that, whatever choice they have been taking, at completion of laborers couldnt favor of working with the association alongside they could leave. Administration may overcome such trouble exactly when administrators alongside specialists may comprehend this situation. Thusly Ajax Management started building the connectio n inside directors alongside administrators through having the intuitive sessions including both. In the past, Management has taken choices without including anyone from laborers side (Jeffrey, 2012). Later for keeping those prior mix-ups alongside for building the certainty inside those specialists, they have done those smart sessions and additionally in the middle of those sessions they have talked about stories of rest of different associations. They have taken after the Open book approach in that they have given the right to gain entrance towards information of the fiscal execution to the workers of Ajax. It turned into the routine practice in which directors, managers alongside specialists may meet week after week and in addition impart its exhibitions. Those practices assembled the fresher kind of participation with laborers of association. 2. Identify two (2) sources of resistance to change in the Perrier case study and describe how the organization dealt with each type of resistance. Perrier association has brought numerous choices alongside Nestle purchased Perrier. More up to date Management of the Nestle brought a few choices alongside rolled out specific improvements in example of work for keeping up improvement of the association (Austin, 2012). There have been a few focuses that have assumed part about safety in progressions brought through the Perrier association. More current administration of the Nestle has watched the current circumstance of the association alongside has attempted to settle association. Since administration had completely separate the laborers, there had been a lesser correspondence among Management and additionally workers. Administration has presented numerous changes such as that they didnt educate their workers of the progressions inside creation alongside the rest of the progressions. Whats more, their representatives felt that such changes had not been mandatory for development of the associationÃ furthermore they had not been prepared to convey comparative execution in past. The majority of their workers felt that those unnecessary changes in generation alongside the rest of the fields may improve its workload. Workers saw negative effects of those progressions on a few variables like its status, rewards, pay rates, choices and a lot of people more. The representatives had identified with the progressions for thems elves and how it had influencing them, separated from with impacts for achievement of the business. Second real safety in change had been the nearby mindedness of associationÃ¢â¬â¢s parts, which fail to offer the improvement alongside collaboration. General choice making from administration has side influenced laborers severely, which they started averting dangers to association, alongside separated they got aware of its individual preferences alongside dangers that had been relied upon to them. Such thing has influenced choice making criteria alongside it has constructed the negative thinking inside representatives against administration. There had been a prerequisite for Management for corresponding with laborers alongside the rest of the parts unmistakably of changes that have been being created inside the association. Results of above-termed resistances had been brought through association. Real result had been lying being developed of the transitional space inside the laborers alongside Management. Since Perrier association had now been possessed through Nestle also there ha d been the hole among the two managements concerning the working circumstance, society and countries, by that way those things need to be conveyed inside all parts accordingly, and that could be the principle focused on advancement for effective business. Such thing has helped Management to know imperativeness of social contrasts, which have not been immaterial alongside may not be disregarded. Consequently, Management has understood that differences has in this manner been the fundamental alongside the essential component being developed alongside achievement of its association even in the middle of the fringes. 3. Compare and contrast how management diagnosed and approached change at the two (2) companies and indicate which company dealt with resistance to change in a more effective manner. Justify the reasoning. Execution of both associations may be diagnosed all things considered: As Management had completely adjusted with the situation of Perrier association and there had been the trouble in framing the communication with specialists forÃ Management, consequently Management first took choice of wiping out the correspondence hole. They have attempted of developing the solid relationship with laborers thusly that they had been ri ght for building the certainty inside them alongside getting their one hundred percent productivity. Ajax Minerals went past its cutoff points. They realized that the association with Management alongside laborers had not been, best case scenario subsequently they furthermore attempted to construct correspondence among their Management alongside specialists through doing week by week gatherings with the specialists and additionally directors. Be that as it may they have examined few more data with its specialists, which for the most part no association does. They have demonstrated their money related execution information to the specialists for making them effectively comprehend its available position inside business. Both of associations Managements took very compelling choices according to its situations alongside they attempted of fathoming their present issues for leaving trouble. On the other hand, as per my assumption, Management of Ajax has improved concerning choice making. Purpose for that has been that Management of Ajax has manufactured the long haul relationship with dir ectors alongside laborers. They took the whole group along in every choice making procedure furthermore keep whole group mindful about the progressions, which they had been going to make. They started doing week by week gatherings with specialists, which had been very mandatory in building the solid correspondence with the workers and through that, laborers got to improve its certainty inside the Management. They brought their chance alongside acted according to thusly there had been no idea about pessimism of administration. Second best thing, which Ajax Management had done, is examining the budgetary execution among specialists. As it has been bit dangerous however to increase complete certainty of the laborers in the harder situation, those sorts of activities have been necessary. Side by side with those deliberations, Ajax Management has vault one more exertion in talking about execution alongside methodologies of the rest of the associations in such a harder situation consequently, to the point that specialists got to know of needs of Management along with that those that had not been difficult to satisfy in conclusion. 4. Consider a situation as a consultant wit h Ajax Management. Propose two (2) adjustments that shouldÃ be made to improve its change strategy and provide a justification as to why those adjustments would improve the effectiveness of the strategy. Being the advisor of the Ajax Management, I ought to propose those alterations towards the changed methodology. The primary thing, which makes issues have been the absence of mindfulness about issues of the associations inside specialists. Also, it has been the reason specialists dont incline toward of giving the extra work in any situation. I may lean toward of keeping laborers completely mindful about all situations, which have been confronted through association, not just with issues however with certain positive viewpoints about association additionally. Side by side, they must be furnished with the data of every laborer alongside their exhibitions through doing week by week gatherings. They must talk about focuses on that they have been ready to accomplish alongside for the most elevated targets, they must be given the high remunerates with respect to rewards accordingly that they would not have any issue with Management. Second conformity, which I need to propose, has been that there must be benevolent society among laborers, chiefs and Management. Purpose behind that has been that, when there has been the inviting society among them, there could be no negative considering anyone furthermore of the Management alongside their choices. Administration may feel free while taking choices and also laborers could feel free of climbing any grumble when they have any issue as to choices of Management, separated from that giving the abdication letter. 5. Consider a situation as a consultant with Perrier. Propose at least two (2) adjustments that should be made to improve its change strategy and provide a justification as to why those adjustments would increase the effectiveness of the strategy. Being expert with the Perrier, I may propose those changes for upgrading the change method of association. Since Perrier has been the association having completely separate society, having separate working criteria alongside laborers in examination to the Nestle, I could have proposed that much in the wake of fusing with the Nestle, Perrier must keep choice making force with itself. As Perriers individual Management realizes that their specialists alongside its attitude matches with each other alongside being its individual supervisor, Management couldnt take any choice, which could hurt the preferences alongside offices, which have given to their representatives at expense of the association. In actuality,Ã worker could likewise not have any protest on choices taken through Management as they realize that those have been choices taken through its individual Management alongside them couldnt provide for its laborers any mischief. On account of that, specialists couldnt lose its enthusiasm toward function and Management furthermore they could be working with a great deal more enthusiasm and also potential for bringing the association out of the awful situation. Both, Management alongside laborers may fabricate inspirational state of mind of each an alternate alongside no cynicism could influence gainfulness and in addition advancement of the association (Tomlin son, 2004). Second principle step, which I may take being the specialist of association, I could favor taking every choice of the association after dialog and in addition aggregate supposition from all specialists alongside Management parts. As this has not been attainable to examine every choice among all laborers, accordingly for the representatives union in control must be termed and in addition Management must talk about matter among him furthermore his assessment should, whats more, be given inclination. Such thing would help the association bringing viable choices alongside would assemble the certainty inside their representatives of their choices of progressions and also workers would be intrigued of working with full certainty. This report portrays how safety may harm choice making methodology of any association however how the compelling Management may tackle every one of those Management issues. The best Management has been the particular case that brings all laborers alongside Managem ent parts along and also redirects all its exertions towards positive bearing for creating the association and side by side specialists. References Austin, A. (2012). Management 6681. Problems at Perrier. SAGE learning. Jeffrey, H. (2012). Change Management: The people side of change, paperback edition. Prosci Learning Center Publications. Tomlinson, R. (2004). Waters at Perrier. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2004/11/29/8192716/index.htm
Friday, September 20, 2019
Media Ecology And The Matrix Film Studies Essay This report is based on Matrix movie. The Matrix movie is a science fiction-action film which was released in America on March 31, 1999.This film written and directed by Larry and Andy Wachowski.it is the first part of Matrix series, not even movie also the part of comic book, video games and animation. The meaning of matrix is a rectangular array of matrix. In this movie its shows there is two different lives, one is computer generated world dream world and another is real, but all human living in dream word which is programed and none of them know. In this movie Neo is a hero and he is a computer programmer and he drawn into a rebellion against the machines. But first he wanted to know what is matrix. Morpheus is main character of this movie and he spends much time on matrix to find, and he also help other to find it. He is the caption of their team in their spaceship which they called Nebuchadnezzar. They always go to dream world and come back with hacked telephone line; it is only the safe exit from the matrix. In other side in dream world a group of Agent which is known as swat team. They want to kill the entire human, so they want to catch the Morpheus. Because he is the only person who knows all the matrix code to go back to their ship throw phone. When they catch the Morpheus then Neo come and save him from him. Discussion There are few issue and theories which are applied on them are following. Media Ecology :- The effect of media on human being throw the perception feeling, understanding etc. and its change our thinking feeling and behaving system. Main source of media are TV, film, radio, mobile, books. Issues raised in the movies are:- Movie seen : In this movie when Agent behind the Trinity to kill, then she ask for help from tank by her cell phone then Tank call on a local STD, when she picked up the phone then she reached at their real world from dream world (Programmed world) in form of matrix. Answer: -Matrix movie is fully based on media ecology. In this movie telephone is used as in the form of media ecology. They used it to communicate and to move from move real to virtual or virtual to real word. Telephone decreased the way difference between both lives and makes it a global village. Virtual word is the hot media in this movie because it programed world and caring huge amount of data and telephone is cold media. In this movie they are using number computer screens to read the matrix. Script from movie: -as example The ship is quiet and dark. Everyone is asleep IN MAIN DECK The core glows with monitor light. Cypher is in the Operators chair as Neo cones up behind him. CYPHER Whoa! Shit, Neo, you scared me. NEO Sorry. CYPHER Midnight watches. Neos eyes light up as he steps closer to the screens That seems alive with a constant flow of data. NEO It is The Matrix? CYPHER Yeah.it is The Matrix. Answer: -In this script you can read that neo talking about computer screens to read the information, computer show some data to which have their own value which is called matrix. Computer becomes a medium for cypher in this example and data become its information and in other words these tools make more extension for them. Cognitive dissonance :- The uncomfortable feeling which is caused by double minded situation, and hard to decided which the person already done is good or not. When Neo become a part of their team they he start meeting to team members. When he meets the cypher, then cypher say: Cypher: I know you thinking same but I am thinking. Neo: what I am thinking? Cypher: why I not choose the blue pill, I want to go back in dream world and I am tired from this life ruled fully life. But Morpheus say it our real word. Answer: This theory is easily applied on Cypher, because first he decided to come in this world but now he wants to go back in virtual (programmed) world. He is double minded and feeling uncomfortable. In this line you can easy understand his feeling, action, behaviour and beliefs are out of harmony and other cause of this is his belief or exception is more than what he got, which is the main reason he feeling uncomfortable and thinking he choose wrong decision and choose red pill. Social penetration theory: It is also known as onion theory, it means it is referred in terms of breath and depth and every layer is show the human behaviour according to its breadth and depth. For example, how we are close to a person, its decrease the layer of personal information of that person for us. Answer: This theory is applied on the relationship of Neo and trinity. First Trinity and Neo was not known to each other closely, it is same like a Onion based example , when she start known about Neo and start come closer, then the interpersonal layers in start decreasing for Trinity and then she feel that he is the one and fall in love with Neo. Here is the script of movie which shows feeling of trinity about Neo. TRINITY Neo, I have to tell you something. I dont know what it means or even If it matters but I feel I have to say it. Ive never told anyone this before. I think Ive been afraid to. When I went to the Oracle, she told me she told me that I would meet A man. And that I would fall in Love Social identity: At the end part of movie when there is a fighting between Neo and agents. Agents catch the neo and kill him by gun but after some time Neo open his eyes and stand up and start fighting again and when again Agents try to shoot him then Neo stop all the bullets in air. Answer: In this part of movie when he was killed, at that movement he was fighting like a normal human and was not who he is. But when he starts thinking about the difference between real human and programmed created world and start compare agents and him. He finds his social identity. His social identity is he is the one in movie who can control his mind the see the difference between real and programed world. Conclusion This movie is a science based fiction-Action movie and media ecology is big part of this movie. Telephone and computer screen are both are the medium of source of information. They contact to each other through the cell phone and they travel on both worlds with telephone exception and all the information they got like position, way to go out from building are they got from computer screen in the form of matrix. So these are the tool of they use which are based on media ecology. Cypher is a character of this movie who feel uncomfortable because he want to go back in virtual world and thinking he choose wrong option so Cognitive dissonance theory is full applied on Cypher. According to social penetration theory human are like the onion, they have layers one after one as breadth and depth. It is same like how much you know a person, layer are start decreases and person start to come close to you same like the character of movie Trinity and Neo. Social identity is also applied on Neo in this movie because he finds his own personality, who he is and he got the difference between his and agents. Referencing Griffin, E. (2006). A first look at communication theory (6th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Many religions and philosophies attempt to answer the question, what happens after a person dies? Some religions such as Christianity and Islam believe there is an afterlife. They believe that good and moral people enter Heaven or paradise and that bad and immoral people go to Hell. Other religions and cultures believe that death is final, and that nothing happens after a person dies. Buddhism and Hinduism have a different idea about death. Both of these religions originated in India. Buddhists and Hindus believe that death is not final. They believe that a person comes back after he or she dies. This process is known as reincarnation, and it provides opportunities for people to enter the world multiple times in different forms. Buddhists and Hindus want to reenter the world as humans, and they want to improve their status through reincarnation. In ancient India, many members of lower casts wanted to come back as members of higher casts. While this is an important goal of reincarnati on, the main goal is to reach either moksha (Hinduism) or nirvana (Buddhism). In other words, the goal is to reach a point of spiritual enlightenment that removes the person from the reincarnation process. Geoff Childs, an anthropologist examines the views of the Buddhist religion by studying the lives of the people in Tibetan villages. He looks at issues that adversely affect these people such as infant mortality. He carefully looks at the lives of people who have been left behind by deceased loved ones, and he pays careful attention to customs and traditions surrounding death. Tibetan Buddhists view death as a means of reaching spiritual perfection, and they seek to reach this level of spiritual perfection through living spiritually meaningful lives.... ...eath is is not a cessation in Buddhism. Death can be seen as a new beginning. A new opportunity to reach spiritual perfection. Infant mortality is a difficult subject to talk about for many Tibetan parents. Survivors are often faced with poverty and other extreme hardships after the loss of a loved one. However, Buddhism provides great comfort to survivors by teaching that Earthly bodies are impermanent. Tibetan cremation procedures place great emphasis on reincarnation. Tibetan views about death are focused on nirvana and spiritual perfection. These practices are spiritually meaningful for both the living survivors and the dead. Works Cited 1 Geoff Childs Tibetan Diary From Birth to Death and Beyond in a Himalayan Valley of Nepal (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004) 41. 2 Ibid., 54. 3Ibid., 54. 4 Ibid., 54 5 Ibid., 146. 6 Ibid., 147.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Networking Report Contents The report is broken down in 30 main sections in them the following can be viewed: 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã INTRODUCTION 2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã WHAT IS A NETWORK? 3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS FROM NETWORKING? 4.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã NETWORK RELATIONSHIP TYPES 5.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã WIDE AREA NETWORKS (WAN) 6.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã LOCAL AREA NETWORKS (LAN) 7.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORK (MAN) 8.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã PEER-TO-PEER NETWORK RELATIONSHIP 9.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã CLIENT/SERVER NETWORK RELATIONSHIP 10.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã COMPARING PEER-TO-PEER AND CLIENT/SERVER 11.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ADVANTAGES OF PEER-TO-PEER 12.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã DISADVANTAGES OF PEER-TO-PEER 13.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ADVANTAGES OF CLIENT/SERVER 14.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã DISADVANTAGES OF CLIENT/SERVER NETWORKS 15.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã NETWORK FEATURES OF CLIENT/SERVER 1 FILE SHARING 2 PRINTER SHARING 3 APPLICATION SERVICES 4 E-MAIL 16.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã THE INTERNET 17.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã NETWORK SECURITY 18.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã WORKSTATION HARDWARE 19.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã BUS TOPOLOGY 20.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã STAR TOPOLOGY 21.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã RING TOPOLOGY 22.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã TREE TOPOLOGY 23.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã FIREWALLS 24.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER LINE (DSL) 25.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ACCOUNT SECURITY 26.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã CONCLUSION 27.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã RECOMMENDATION 28.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã BIBLIOGRAPHY 29.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 30.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã APPENDICES APPENDIX 1.1: THE SERVER APPENDIX 1.2: THE NETWORK CARD APPENDIX 1.3: THE ROUTER INTRODUCTION I have decided to research into Networking as my individual assignment for CP2099, because I am interested in setting up networks, as I already have set up my own small network at home. I also want to find out some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of networks. I will research extensively in order to find the best possible network for: Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã &... ...ughput of 100mbps (using 100mbps hub and cabling) even the most demanding multi-player games will run smoother and more reliably. Ideal for games like Quake, Half-Life and Unreal Tournament, Windows networking and data transfer. Supplied with drivers for Windows 95, 98 and Windows NT. Appendix 1.3: The Router ADSL 16port Router with built in Modem & Firewall Source: PC WorldÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã The Instant Broadband EtherFast Cable/DSL VPN Router is the ideal solution for remotely accessing a network securely over the Internet using cutting edge encryption and authentication methods.16Port Router, which expands its functionality and security, features by utilizing 56-bit DES and 168-bit 3DES encryption, and Internet Key Exchange (IKE). A built-in IPSec coprocessor from Hifn allows for complete data privacy for the access and exchange of your most sensitive data from your home to your corporate network or between remote branch offices without the additional cost of IPSec VPN client software for each computer. The Router is capable of conducting up to 70 simultaneous IPSec VPN tunnels while allowing additional savings with no upgrade fees or technical support costs.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Farewell to Arms books 13.Henry has been taken to the American hospital in Milan where Miss Gage, a young nurse takes care of him. The head nurse forbid Henry to drink wine but he disobeys, and pays some Italians to bring him wine with the newspapers. Titles : Arrival at the hospital in Milan, first days at the hospital, encounter with Miss Gage & Miss Van Campen. 14.Arrival of Miss Barkley(Catherine), at the American hospital and the revelation of their love for each other. Henry learns by Miss Gage that Miss Barkley has come to work at the hospital. A barber comes to shave Henry but he mistakes him with an Austrian soldier and he threatens to cut his throat. Henry realises that heÃ¢â¬â¢s in love with Catherine and they spent their first night together. 15. Dr Valentini,. Henry is visited by doctors who remove some of the shrapnel from his leg. The doctors seem incompetent, and tell Henry he will have to wait six months for an operation if he wants to keep his leg. He cannot stand the thought of spending six months in bed, and asks for another opinion; the house doctor says he will send for Dr. Valentini. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s a skilled doctor. When Dr. Valentini comes, he says he will perform the operation in the morning. 16. Preparation for the operation Catherine spends the night in Henry's room. Catherine prepares him for the operation, and warns him not to talk about their affair while under the anaesthetic. 17. After the operation, Henry is very sick. As he recovers, three other patients come to the hospital--a boy from Georgia with malaria, a boy from New York with malaria and jaundice, and a boy who tried to unscrew the fuse cap from an explosive shell for a souvenir. Henry develops an appreciation for Helen Ferguson, who helps him pass notes to Catherine while she is on duty. Catherine continues to stay with Henry every night, but Henry and Miss Gage finally convince her to take three nights off of night duty--Miss Van Campen has commented that Henry always sleeps till noon. 18. That summer Henri learns to walk on crutches, and he and Catherine enjoy Milan. They befriend the headwaiter at a restaurant called the Gran Italia, and Catherine continues to see Henry every night. They discuss marriage, but Catherine remains opposed to the idea for the time being. They pretend to be married instead.
The health issues of obesity which is defined as an eating disorder and an associated serious health concern
With in this assignment I will discuss the health issues of obesity which is defined as an eating disorder and an associated serious health concern that is defined by excess weight Colditz & Dietz, (1999) I will also discuss the holist issues that may impact on an individual healthy lifestyle. I will identify one government policy that has been put in place to help alleviate the problem of obesity, and explore the nurse's role in relation to the policy. Using relevant evidence such as literature reviews and researched articles I will support my findings, and conclude by giving an overall summary of the main point of this essay. BMI is widely used to define obesity (WHO, 1998). And is calculated as BMI = Weight (kg)/Height2 (m). A person that is obesity has a larger amount of extra body fat and is more prone to the risks of serious health problems such as Heart disease, stroke, High blood pressure and Diabetes. (Cynthia Haines 2005). Obesity can be hereditary, but only develops from overeating, irregular meals and having a lack of daily physical activity Arne Astrup (2005) The Holism impact involves looking at every aspect of a person's life and wellbeing and trying to understand the reasons why they have developed theses holistic issues. This may involve there physical, physiological, social and spiritual impacts of there lifes. Kolcabu,R. ,1997 defines holism as the belief that a whole person can consist of these compartments and suggest that these compartments are intimately connected with a persons physical body. The psychological impact of obesity may consist of low self-image and lack of confidence, social stigma, reduced mobility and a poorer quality of life, obese children and adolescents face stigmatisation and discrimination in many areas of their lives. It has been assumed that their psychological well-being will be compromised both as a direct consequence of this social adversity, and indirectly through negative Ã¢â¬Ëreflected self-appraisal'. Wardle J. (2005) The holist social impact on obesity can result from an underlying pathological condition, e. . hypothyroidism which is a condition in which the body lacks sufficient thyroid hormone, the current trends lie with an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and poor dietary habits, which are particularly seen in the lower socio-economic groups. (National statistics 2001) Research has also suggested that the main problem is the continual reduction in the amount of exercise people take and argued that many overweight children have overweig ht parent which is often a matter of a family's lifestyle. Dr Rob Hicks 2006). The spiritual issues of obesity may involve the lack of meaning and purpose of how they perceives there out look on life, It has been suggested that psychological classes and therapies sessions may provide individuals the opportunity to develop some insight into there old patterns of life and develop healthier skills which can in turn help and deal with there issues of obesity that can then increase there likelihood of restoring a healthier life style. Physical activity are also a major aspect on a person's life in the relation of body composition, it is suggested that weight gain is associated with periods of a lack of activity and argue that by increasing physical activity body fat can be reduced. Behnke, A. , (1974). The Royal College of GPs (2004) have stated that exercise needs to be made more affordable and accessible to people living in the UK as the Lack of physical activity is found to be the most significant factor to the contribution to childhood obesity and is contributed to inactivity's, such as watching television or sitting playing computer games. Ref I suggest that the over all spectrum of society must work to together to tackle the effects of obesity and may involves marketing less fast food outlets and giving people on low incomes free gym membership, I suggest with theses alteration in place the financial and health impacts on obesity would decrease considerably as according to The Health Select Committee has estimated that the costs of obesity is around i3. Ã¢â¬â i3. 7 billion per year and suggest if there were less obese people in this country 15,000 fewer people would develop conditions such as coronary heart disease, 34,000 fewer people would developing type 2 diabetes, and 99,000 fewer people would develop high blood pressure. (Department of health 2007) However measures have already been put in place to try and tackle theses health implication. The new NICE guidelines (2006) a government policy have clinical guideline on the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children and covers how G. P's and hospitals asses whether people are overweight or obese as well as ways of helping people lose weight and stay healthy. However it is still considered that peolel in our socieit can sometimes find it very difficult talk about their weight issues as There is still a lot of stigma and shame connected to obesity Professor Thomas (2004) I suggest that the nurse role explored in this government policy is to help individuals try accept there obesity as a condition, establish family history and there views around there condition of obesity and consider some of the possible health reasons why weight loss is considered necessary for them, this may include changing there eating patterns and increasing levels of physical activities. NICE 2006) other Interventions may include encouraging the increase of fresh fruit and vegetables (five portions a day) a Government recommendation (Department of health2003). Confectionery firms have also been told to shelve some of their king size chocolate bars in a bid to tackle obesity however Z Linnell, Bucks, UK argues that It isn't the size of the chocolate bar that is to bla me for obesity but the frequency in which people eat it. The Department However there are May barriers that may discourage healthy eating such as cultural barriers ethnic minority populations wear them view obesity as a more positive with neutral value Kumanyika, s. K 1994. Other barriers may include the lack of knowledge, attitudes, motivation and skills that involve the buying, preparing and eating health foods. . of Health said the NHS already allowed GPs to refer patients to gyms for a subsidised membership I conclude that this may suggest that all the holistic issues of an individual can be an important aspect for long-term weight and body fat regulation and Good health and effective learning go hand in hand as a healthy body leads to a healthy mind. and agreement with the that by taking the Ã¢â¬ËSmall Changes of obesity such as promoting physical activity across the board can make Big Difference to people's long-term health (Caroline Flint 2006)
Monday, September 16, 2019
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest public service broadcaster that was founded in 1992 with the aim of educating, entertaining and enriching the public with information conveyed through broadcasted programs. The expansion and success of BBC can be attributed to the business-level strategies that the corporation implements from the time the company was established to present. BBC was able to incorporate strategies into its organizational culture which ensured it gained competitive advantage.The corporation gave its organization a unique identification mark that was appealing to customers when it opened stand alone stores that were highly visible, provided ample parking space and located the stores in urban areas which contain large numbers of potential customers (Hill & Gareth, 2004). Moreover, the corporation identified its customers, their needs and thus implemented strategies that were geared towards satisfying their demands. For instance the c orporation offered a wide variety of tapes a fact that ensured BBC met the desires of its customers.The corporation was also able to manage a long lasting relationship with its customers by devising a strategy that allowed customers to stay longer with the rented movies a mechanism that helped the corporation to further fulfill the needs of its customers (Hill & Gareth, 2004). Furthermore, BBC offered and enhanced superiority value to its organizational culture and reputation by employing efficient strategies which allowed customers to access the tapes easily and at a faster rate by arranging them alphabetically and separating new movie releases from the older ones.The corporation also incorporated advanced technology into its operations which allowed customers to have a comfortable and easy time while at the store, for instance the use of the laser bar-code scanner technology to access required information from the movie cassettes and customersÃ¢â¬â¢ ID tags thereby consuming lit tle time of customers (Hill & Gareth, 2004).Although the corporation has managed to open and successfully run BBC branches globally it was also faced with challenges that forced it to close down some of its stores this is because of the improper market research strategies the corporation implemented to learn and get acquitted with the market environment, the likes and dislikes of prospective customers. For instance BBC was forced to close down the stores it had opened up in Hong Kong and China because the profitability of the corporation was challenged by piracy which is highly ranked in China because of poor implementation of patent policies and regulations.BBC was also forced to close down the stores it had opened in Germany because the corporation was unable to fulfill the desires of the consumers that demanded provision of movies and programs which contained violence and sex rated captions in their themes, demands that were against the principles and policies of the corporation (Hill & Gareth, 2004). In 1927 the British Monarchy granted the Corporation a Royal Charter protecting itÃ¢â¬â¢s independence from the manipulation and influences of private and governmental sectors a fact that enables the organization to cater fully to the needs of its customers.The products and services provided by BBC are original because of the opportunity that the charter prevails of allowing the corporation to be innovative thus providing products that are of high quality. BBC is also able to easily penetrate into the global market where it widens its scope of customers and utilizes the resources prevailed to maximize its operations, performance and profitability.However, BBC must enact public value in all its operations and has no control of members appointed to run the corporation because the appointments are done by the Queen under the advice of ministers. Since it is a state corporation, BBC can not make decisions that are geared towards benefiting the organization witho ut considering the welfare of the society like private sectors do (Hill & Gareth, 2004). Word Count: 632 Reference List Hill, W. C. & Gareth, R. J. (2004). Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach, Annual Update. 6th Ed. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Abstract Racial profiling has influenced many people across the world; it has been a huge problem which needs to be resolved. The points discussed in this paper basically touch on why racial profiling is unacceptable and how it needs to be sustained. Why minorities shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to suffer because of false stereotypes; also shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to deal with bias opinions of the law. America is the land of the free also a place where second chances are embraced. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s points made on how people reacted to racial profiling, and some resolutions. The ultimate goal is to minimize this epidemic in hopes people can start raising more awareness about the matter and find a way to make it work. The Authenticity of Racial Profiling and Law Enforcement Researchers believe law enforcement officers tend to prey on people of minority and watch closely in hopes for them to commit crime. Seemingly officers spend more time worrying about minorities than whites. Imaginably a young black male was observed driving by an officer in a nice vehicle going through a white neighborhood. The officer would probably find a reason to pull the driver which is called profiling. A lot of suspects are profiled because of prior history in the system, or stick out due to their environment. Ã¢â¬Å"For example, if someone who is obviously poor is frequently seen in a more affluent neighborhood, such a person may be profiled as someone with possible criminal intentÃ¢â¬ West Encyclopedia of Law (2005). This activity by law enforcement is unjust; sadly most of the officers believe they can do whatever they please. The citizens of the United States have certain rights to privacy; officers need to identify definite criminals making sure they are absolutely com mitting crimes. Studying this topic is worth the argument because of the disreputable nature of how law enforcement bases their bias assumptions of minorities. Granted some criminal minoritiesÃ do spend a lot of time in the system which is a fact, but also a good amount get rehabilitated and want to start a fresh private life, which they are entitled to. Ã¢â¬Å"It is a degrading practice and continues largely unchecked, violating the human and civil rights of those targetedÃ¢â¬ One America (2010). This issue raises a bunch of questions that should be looked into further, and examined much deeper. The general understanding of racial profiling is pre determining a minority is committing a criminal act, therefore should be approached by law enforcement. The law states that you are innocent until proven guilty in a court of law; hence minorities should remain innocent as well as driven free from prior judgment before found guilty of anything. This conduct ties in with the current understanding of t he crime, now someone just has to find a reasonable solution for both sides. With immense exposure of profiling tirades along came reaction. People believe evidence must be obtained in order to even pursue a suspect. Reasonable suspicion or reasonable doubt is a word an officer might use believing their suspect may have been armed, or a threat to society. Though the officer must be held accountable for the reasons he or she selected to approach the minority. The monumental Supreme Court case Terry vs. Ohio helped to shed tremendous light on the matter. The case pretty much made racial profiling harder to conduct for police. A law was passed because of this case which it made officers have to retain a search warrant in order to search a civilianÃ¢â¬â¢s property or belongings. Also law enforcement is unable to stop and frisk someone anywhere they please, for example a high crime area. On the other hand some officials believe racial profiling is necessary because it can save people from criminal activity before it begins, sparing injury to anyone. Protectors of profiling do not approve of the racial component of the matter. Defenders believe identifying tendencies of a criminal and being proactive make a decent officer. Even though my viewpoint does not approve of the defenders, the opinion has to be shared and addressed. Much of the perception of profiling really just has to do with the training of the particular officer and where they get their discipline. References Ã¢â¬Å"Racial Profiling.Ã¢â¬ WestÃ¢â¬â¢s Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. Retrieved October 02, 2013 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437703637.html Heumann, Milton, and Lance Cassak. 2003. Good Cop, Bad Cop: Racial Profiling and Competing Views of Justice in America. New York: P. Lang.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The Boston Photographs In Ã¢â¬Å"The Boston PhotographsÃ¢â¬ by Nora Ephron, Ephron used most of the time writing about the reactions of the many readers all over the nation and world whom were shocked by the pictures that were published in their local newspapers. She should have used most of the time writing about the day when the incident happened. By doing this, it would have affected people a lot more than seeing the bad of it.In telling the facts, Ephron only provides factual information such as whom took the picture, what the picture is about, what type of camera he used, and what a variety of newspapers all over the nation did with the pictures. Ephron dedicates a large amount of writing telling the reactions to the photographs by first expressing her own reaction to the pictures and then in detail the reactions of readers and publishers whom published the set of pictures in their newspapers.Ephron gives a small amount of writing to editors and their defense of the photograp hs. Ephron only explains how several editors wrote columns defending the pictures. For EphronÃ¢â¬â¢s own analysis she dedicates a very large part to explaining her analysis of the pictures and the people reactions of the publishing of the pictures and her views on the treatment of publishing such pictures for the general public. Ephron explains how the phone calls, letters, and SeibÃ¢â¬â¢s own reaction, were occasioned by one factor, which was the death of a woman.She explains how everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the picture would have been different if the caption said that the women didnÃ¢â¬â¢t die or the child was killed instead because the picture would always be the same, but everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction would be different. In the end Ephron explains how newspaper editors are afraid to publish such pictures such as the Boston pictures because they fear the reaction of the people and so they continue censoring such pictures.In my opinion, Ephron stabilities these numerous perce ptions in not such a good style of writing because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide an equal amount of words for each perspective and what needs to be addressed by each point of view and the importance of each view. I think if she spent more time giving equal opportunity to each perspective so that there is a balance in information that is being presented by each viewpoint then her essay would be a whole lot stronger and I would think that it would be less opinionated.In reading this essay I kind of wanted to know more about the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction as well as how numerous editors defended the photographs and the outcomes of those editors defending the publishing of those photos. For example, when the author sayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The photographs are indeed sensational. They are pictures of death in action, of that split second when luck runs out, and it is impossible to look at them without feeling their extraordinary impact and remembering, in an almost subconscious way, the morbid fan tasy of falling, falling, off a building, falling to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s deathÃ¢â¬ (Ephron 657).This quote proves that the author uses her opinions rather other people opinions. Also, by using her opinions, her form of writing is not strong. If she used other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts with her beliefs, then her writing would be strong enough to back up the information she is trying to present. I disagree with the author, because she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t use vivid examples throughout the story. She should have written more about the special incident that happened and how everyone felt about it.Instead, she wrote who took the picture, what the picture is about, what type of camera the person used, and what did all the newspaper companyÃ¢â¬â¢s all over the nation did with the pictures. For example, when the author says Ã¢â¬Å"The pictures were taken by Stanley Forman, thirty, of the Boston Herald American. He used a motor-driven Nikon F set at 1/250, f 5. 6-8. Because of the motor, the camera c an click off three frames a secondÃ¢â¬ (Ephron 657). The author should have not put this information in the story, because is it unnecessary in the story, and does not belong in the story.The article makes me think about the incident that happened to the world trade center on 9/11, because it reminds me of people that had to go through the whole attack and how they felt about it. It is similar to The Boston Photographs, because the photos where published in the newspaper. After the 9/11 attack, seeing the photos on the front page, people went insane just as in The Boston Photographs. Works cited Ephron, Nora. Ã¢â¬Å"The Boston Photographs. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The Norton Reader: An Anthology of Nonfiction. New York: W. W. Norton & Co, 2012.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Fossil Fuels versus Renewable Energy - Essay Example There are also alternatives to fossil fuels. One of the alternatives is wind energy. Wind energy is cheap, proficient, and pollution free (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2013). Wind energy is made from big windmills that are placed on hills to supply power to the households. The downside of windmills is that they kill millions of birds in a year (Fear, 2011). The other alternative is solar energy. Solar energy is used to power houses, cars, satellites, and buildings. The suns energy is captured and harnessed to provide heat for electricity. Solar power is free to harness. However, it is costly to buy and install panels (Llorens, 2011). Another source of energy is biomass and cellulosic ethanol. This energy is from crops remain, and fast growing trees. The uses of the products influence the environment. However, biomass that uses trees harms the environment. The other source of energy is hydropower. This uses water to spin turbines to make electricity. Although is cheap to make electricity, it is harmful to plants, fish, and other wildlife in and near rivers (Natural Resources Defense Council,
Thursday, September 12, 2019
American Fish - Assignment Example Nakamura and the family were made to leave the country because the treatment they were getting while in America was not good. She explains it sadly, that her father was even forced to sell the store they had worked so hard for a living at a throwaway price. They sold it to the first buyer who was willing to buy the store (Sasaki, p. 72). From the story, after a long dance around the embarrassment of trying to figure out where they had met before, it comes clear that they had met each other in the workplace. Mrs. Hayashi was once working in MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s where Mrs. Nakamura was heading for work as they were parting. This explains the theory of forgetting where there were loss and decay of memory due to disuse of the information as they had parted a long time ago. Before making any referral point to individuals that I meet, I also try to get their background information rather those misleading assumptions that might lead to loss or failure of identification. By so doing, it will help in memory refresh and making of correct referral points (Sasaki, p.74). The referral points that have been made are all wrong I can say this because it is evident that there has been a war between the two countries. In addition, immigrants to America from Japan are treated poorly and to the extent to which they are forced to vacate upon orders just like a family to Mrs. Nakamura (Sasaki, p.
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Frequency Distribution - Essay Example However, the distribution looks skewed to the left with a longer tail starting at 25. There is also a second peak at 35. The frequency distribution tells us that the margin of victory is between 10-15 and occasional margin of victory at 35 above. 3. Based on the Frequency distribution and the Histogram chart, the distribution of the data has 3 peaks at 111-119, 127-135, 159-167. This means that the data may contain three types or categories because it is not normally distributed. The frequency distribution tells us that the different brands of vehicles can be categorized into three, depending on their vehicle quality ratings. The number of defects per 100 vehicles would depend on where the vehicle brand belongs. 4. Based on the Frequency distribution and the Histogram chart, the distribution of the consumer fraud complaints is centered on 30 to 49 years of age. The distribution follows a normal bell curve. This means that younger and older people has filed less consumer fraud complaints than those at the middle age. Younger people aged 19 and under files lesser complaints as shown by the negative skewness of the distribution. 5. The table was made into a chart that easily analyzes the trends in terms of investment type. Since the data is categorized into investment types, the data is color coded according to its type. Since the table is a time-series with data from 1996 to 2002, the x-axis of the graph is labeled with years. With this type of column graph, the reader can easily identify the different percentages per year as well as the different trends over
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Project - Assignment Example The technological as well as development research course produces a quality level that the business gets competitiveness and differentiation in the structure, even though this demands, noteworthy but essential investments. 3 To study the system the analyst needs to do collect facts and all relevant information. The facts when expressed in quantitative form are termed as data. The success of this project is depended upon the accuracy of available data. Accurate information can be collected with help of certain methods/ techniques. These specific methods for finding information of the this system are; Interviews, Questionnaires, Record View and Observations. We shall use interviews since the information collected is quite accurate and reliable as we will clear and cross check the doubts there itself. This method also will help gap the areas of misunderstandings and help to discuss about the future problems. 5 Tactical planning and innovation are at present, essential elements of the aggressive and sustainability of a business. Conversely, framework situations demand the business to be structured to approval to a more and more complicated demand in an open structure, where the idea of quality is to be realized in all their dimensions as well as in continuous assessment. The transformation must be planned, according to the exhaustive investigation of the circumstances and the external and internal conditions that the organization functions. The innovation produces effectiveness and efficiency in the processes of business production; the information handling is essential. The technological as well as development research course produces a quality level that the business gets competitiveness and differentiation in the structure, even though this demands, noteworthy but essential investments. Currently, the system used is manual. It requires a lot of
Monday, September 9, 2019
Affect of Internet on Print Media - Essay Example The paper evaluates the hypothesis about the presumed replacement effect on print media of internet. Discussion The issue of the impact of internet on traditional print media has been investigated by researchers in certain disciplines. Various facets of internet vs. print media are analyzed. Internet vs. Printed News Levmor and Craven (2011) evaluates the area of news publications for effect of internet on print media. Levmor and Craven (2011) states that online channel has caused a declining effect on print media in the context of news publication and consumption. The reason for this impact is ascribed by Levmor and Craven (2011) to benefits of online news over print news. Online news has the functionality of having the facility to place news stories into better context by including photo galleries, videos, and hyperlinks to different sources or relevant articles published online. The superior level of customization for individual reader made possible with the Internet gives it a re markable edge over print media. Several newspapers have gone out of business or shifted to online model during the last ten years (Baigi, 2011). Dijkstra, Buijtels and Raaij (2008) adopted a circulation model to understand the impact of interent on physical news publication business by using circulation measure rather than readership model. Circulation of printed news pertains to the cumulative number of individual copies distributed or printed, while readership relates to the total count of people reading a publication taking into account borrowing and sharing, as well (Dijkstra, Buijtels and Raaij, 2008). The former was utilized due to greater accuracy of the count. A positive correlation was found between growths...Internet is referred to as a worldwide system of computer networks which is based on the use of routing of data and information in electronic form. Internet forms a global information space and is the physical basis for the World Wide Web and many other systems for dat a transfer. At the present time the internet is fastest growing medium and it is used in everyday life. There have been observable impacts on magazines and newspapers and related print media after free digital content became widespread. One can expect that free digital content would eventually cannibalize entire sales of print media. Introduction Print media refers to all means of dissemination of written information, which includes newspapers, periodical publicationsÃ and books. Print media has evolved into new forms of newer forms in recent years like free newspapers and targeted magazines for specific population groups. Print media is generally perceived to have receded in the lateÃ twentiethÃ century and earlyÃ twenty-firstÃ century. Internet forms a globalÃ information spaceÃ and is the physical basis forÃ the World Wide Web and many other systems for data transfer. At the present time the internet is fastest growing medium and it is used in everyday life. It is frequently hypnotized that emergence of internet and growth of internet technologies is causing a continuous decline in consumption of print media. Rationale for this supposition is asserted as the ease of access of online medium and low cost. The paper evaluates the hypothesis about the presumed replacement effect on print media of internet. Print media is generally perceived to have receded in consumption. The phenomenon of diffusion of the press is taking place at a rapid pace while distribution of newspapers and magazines is decreasing. Evidence is present to support the fact that internet contains greater diversity of information and is less regulated by governmental authorities and power groups than printed media. For this reason, internet is being favored by the readers and several newspapers have gone out of business or shifted to online model during the last ten years. Also it is concluded that a positive correlation is found between growths of internet penetration among masses with the reduction in newspaper circulation. Nevertheless, a highly interesting observation put forwarded by some thinkers it that the internet is not economically viable mode of publishing and communication.
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Phase response curves to light and to melatonin - Essay Example In human light PRC (Figure 1), the y-axis of the PRC shows the direction and relative magnitude of the phase shift in hours induced by light exposure (solid line). Circadian Time Zero (CT0) corresponds to 11:00 am and CT22-CT18 is the duration for day time activity. The black bar, which indicates the time period between 12:00 midnight Ã¢â¬â 8:00am, along x-axis represents the duration for sleeping. Bright light treatment causes the phase-delay of circadian phase, which is represented by the area from CT10 to CT18. During this period, bright light treatment causes later onset of sleeping/awakening cycle. As time progresses from CT10, stronger effect on phase-delay is observed. At CT18, this phase-delay effect is changed dramatically to phase-advancing effect. The peak phase-advancing effect coincides with sunrise. From CT18 to CT3, bright light treatment induces phase-advancing effect, causing earlier onset of sleeping / awakening cycle. This effect gradually decreases from CT19 to CT3. As noted in the graph, little or no effect is observed when bright light treatment is applied from CT14 to CT20, in which this time period corresponds to 2:00pm to 8:00pm. The intensity of the light used in bright light treatment can have direct effect on the magnitude of the phase advancement or delay. ... After this time point, this effect decreases to the lowest point to CT12. It should be noted that during this time period, bright light treatment has no phase-shifting effect on circadian rhythm. From CT18 to CT0, melatonin administration induces a phase-delay effect on circadian rhythm, however, this effect is relatively small when compared with the phase advancing effect induced by bright light treatment. From 2 hours before the onset of sleeping (CT12) onwards until time of sunrise (CT18), administration of melatonin does not exert any effect on circadian rhythm. This time duration coincides with phase delaying effect of bright light treatment. b. Using this knowledge of the phase response curves to light and to melatonin, design a protocol to alleviate the effects of jet lag when travelling from London Singapore (8 time zones eastward) The flights for travelling from London to Singapore are available both in the morning and at night. The local time in Singapore is ahead of London by 8 hours (8 time zones eastward). Assuming there are two flights travelling from London to Singapore, one flight has the depart time at 11:00 am (London local time) and arrive in Singapore at 7:00 am (Singapore local time, one day ahead); the other flight departs at 22:00 pm (London local time) and arrives at 18:00 pm (Singapore local time, one day ahead). The total duration of the flight is approximately 13 hours. The circadian rhythm may be entrained by advance or delay the sleep/awake cycle and both intake of melatonin at about 4 hours before to its natural peak in the circadian cycle or bright light treatment may induce an advance response (3). The following protocol is devised from
Saturday, September 7, 2019
How might an anthropologist analyse a mainstream film - Essay Example The depiction of the characters in the movie is not only racist in more ways than one, it is also extremely sexist. It takes historically inaccurate facts and places the burden of a sexist society upon the tribes of America. The vision that the director and the makers of the movie endorse is extremely problematic and make for disturbing viewing when looked through with a postcolonial and feminist approach. The dissection of the movie in this paper shall then proceed with the gaze of an anthropologist. Another factor that shall be looked into is the fact that GibsonÃ¢â¬â¢s movie was a mainstream one and hence factors in popular notions regarding other cultures. This then brings in the elements of reception and the cultural attitudes that are prevalent in the American and also global population. What sections of the population are targeted is also something that needs to be discussed here. This paper shall seek to look at these elements of the debate and also a psychoanalytic approac h into the understanding of why certain races are depicted as they are in popular culture. However, there is another side to this debate. The changes that are introduced into the idea of the Mayans represent the idea of difference between the city and the forest within Mayan culture. The movie is then an indictment of Mayan elite culture that according to Gibson had degenerated into a set of mindless rituals. The city becomes the center of all forms of evil that Gibson associates with Mayan culture. This is then contrasted with the culture that is prevalent within the geographical confines of the village. This village is then the site of family and bonding between different members of the same society. It is a self-sufficient unit that is understood to be a space where traditional aspects of Mayan life are followed without there being a corruption of these ways. There is however, also the presence of technology in the form of traps and other devices that smoothen the life of the peo ple in the villages. There is thus, an endorsement of the idea of the Ã¢â¬Å"noble savageÃ¢â¬ as Jean Jacques Rousseau thought of it. It discussed the idea of man in a pure state which made him not merely a savage but also a noble one that was purer than the man who had been corrupted by civilization (Basic Concept: Primitivism and the Noble Savage). Throughout the movie, aspects of Mayan culture are denigrated and the only character whose perspective is taken for a large part of the movie is that of the protagonist, Jaguar Paw. The movie traces the life that this character leads where a process of colonization takes place between different tribes within America. The fickleness of power is made clear in this kind of transfer of power takes place very frequently. One of the people who were met by Jaguar Paw is later seen as a captive within a matter of a few days. All of this leads to the series of human sacrifices that take place at the Mayan temple in an effort to appease the Ma yan god Kukulkan. The degeneration of the culture of the elite and those that live in the city are talked of in this movie. The connection between Jaguar Paw and the nature of his homeland is repeatedly stressed. This can also be seen in the way in which the forest decimates the people of the city who seek to kill Jaguar Paw. The connection between Jaguar Paw and his homelandÃ¢â¬â¢
Morality and Generally Good Morals Essay Morals, values and beliefs are all very similar in a way even though they may have different scientific definitions. Everyone in the world has morals, values and beliefs, although they may differ and have different roles in each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s lives; theses three things all have an impact on how we choose to live our lives in some way. According to the online Merriam Webster dictionary, a moral is defined as something Ã¢â¬Å"concerned with the principles of right and wrong behavior and the goodness or badness of human character. Ã¢â¬ How we act in certain situations is often based on our morals. With morals, the way one was raised plays a big factor on whether or not that person makes morally right or wrong decisions. More often than not, someone who had a stable and well-rounded upbringing will make more morally right choices in their life compared to someone with less family influence or support. Sometimes there are exceptions with this, but generally good morals are usually instilled in people at a young age which can last a lifetime. A moral can also serve as a lesson or theme which is why the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"the moral of the storyÃ¢â¬ exists. With that being said, it is possible for someone to gain moral values through learning lessons through personal or othersÃ¢â¬â¢ life experiences. By learning lessons through experiences it allows us to have a better understanding on how to act if a similar experience arises again. One moral value that my parents always stressed me to have was to be honest with everyone. They taught me that with honest actions comes more respect and trust from others, which will be very beneficial in my personal and professional life. Value is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the regard that something is held to deserve; the importance, worth, or usefulness of somethingÃ¢â¬ by the online Oxford Dictionary. Values are the components of peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ lives that they find important and meaningful. PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s values often change throughout their lives as their circumstances change. Personally, my values are education, family, friends and money. All of these are important aspects to me which I find necessary to be content with my life. If I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t find education valuable to me I would not be enrolled in school right now. Also, without my family and friends, I would not be who I am today since they serve as a great support system and offer value to my life. Money is important because without it I would not be able to support myself while away at school . For example I would not be able to buy necessary items such as books and supplies to give me the best chance at succeeding in college. As time goes on these values may change to my career, my children and more things that would be more meaningful to me as I get older in age.
Friday, September 6, 2019
Transcendentalism Through The Political Thought Of Emerson Thoreau And Fuller Essay Example for Free
Transcendentalism Through The Political Thought Of Emerson Thoreau And Fuller Essay During the early to middle years of the nineteenth century, American transcendentalism was born. The term transcendental came from German philosopher Immanuel Kant. He criticizes John Locke, who claimed that knowledge comes through our sensual impressions of the world. Kant feels as though the mind has intuitions of itself that he called transcendental forms. He said that all intuitive thought is transcendental. (The Transcendentalist, 1842) Transcendentalism has a lot of meanings but over time it has essentially remained the same. A 1913 WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary described transcendentalism as claiming Ã¢â¬Å"to have a true knowledge of all things, material and immaterial, human and divine, so far as the mind is capable of knowing them. It is also sometimes used for that which is vague and illusive in philosophy. Ã¢â¬ (Webster Dictionary, 1913) Today transcendentalism has furthered its meaning to Ã¢â¬Å"a philosophy which says that thought and spiritual things are more real than ordinary human experience and material things. Ã¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster, n. d. ) Cliffnotes describes it as: Ã¢â¬Å"A religious, literary, and philosophical movement in New England between 1836, when Emerson published Nature, and 1844, when The Dial Ã¢â¬â the publishing entity of the transcendental movement Ã¢â¬â ceased publication. Influenced by Unitarianism, transcendentalists denied the existence of miracles, preferring a Christianity that rested on the teachings of Christ and not on his deeds. They experimented with communal living and supported educational innovation, the abolitionist and feminist movements, and the reform of the church and society, generally. New England transcendentalists were committed to intuition as a way of knowing, to individualism, and to a belief in the divinity of humans and nature. Ã¢â¬ (Charles Mignon H. Rose, Glossary, n. d. ) Transcendentalism is so much more than these simple definitions. Ralph Waldo Emerson, one of the leaders of the movement, developed a whole essay on explaining the movement and even further discussed it in many of his other writings. In The Transcendentalist, Emerson first describes transcendentalism as idealism, the idealism of 1842. He considers people as either materialists or idealists. Ã¢â¬Å"Materialism is the philosophical belief that all human events and conditions depend upon material objects and their interrelationships; sensory perception is the key to learning. Ã¢â¬ (Charles Mignon H. Rose, Glossary, n. d. ) Materialists see things as they are and except them for that. Materialist can become Idealists but Idealists can never become materialists. Ã¢â¬Å"Idealism is the philosophical assumption that material objects do not exist independently of human perception. Ã¢â¬ (Charles Mignon H. Rose, Glossary, n. d. ) Idealists are founded on consciousness. They believe that things go beyond the senses, the senses represent things but they canÃ¢â¬â¢t tell you what these things are. They insist on the power of thought, will, inspiration, miracles and individual culture. They believe their way of thinking is in higher nature. They see events as spirits. (The Transcendentalist, 1842) They can see a chair and look beyond it being just a chair. They see the spiritual aspect of it. Once they do recognize the many possibilities of a spiritual life, they continue to seek after this transcending state. Ã¢â¬Å"The Transcendentalist adopts the whole connection of spiritual doctrine. He believes in miracle, in the perpetual openness of the human mind to new influx of light and power; he believes in inspiration, and in ecstasy. He wishes that the spiritual principle should be suffered to demonstrate itself to the end, in all possible applications to the state of man, without the admission of anything unspiritual; that is, anything positive, dogmatic, personal. Thus, the spiritual measure of inspiration is the depth of the thought, and never, who said it? And so he resists all attempts to palm other rules and measures on the spirit than its own. Ã¢â¬ (The Transcendentalist, 1842) Idealists see the how the mind process our senses as more important than the senses themselves. They see our existence as subjective. They judge only according to their values and measure according to their values. Their main focus is the individual. They feel as though individuals should focus on fixing their moral character rather than focusing on the world as a whole. It makes more sense for everyone to fix themselves because if each individual changes him or herself then the world as a whole will eventually change. Transcendentalism proposes that human nature is good and the individual will seek good but society is to blame for corruption. Therefore the individual should focus on themselves. (Campbell, 1997) Emerson believes the idealists or transcendentalist should be self-dependent. He feels as though Ã¢â¬Å"it is simpler to be self-dependent. The height, the deity of man is, to be self-sustained, to need no gift, no foreign force. Ã¢â¬ (The Transcendentalist, 1842) The transcendentalists should be self-absorbed. Transcendentalists have an antisocial character. Ã¢â¬Å"They are lonely; the spirit of their writing and conversation is lonely; they repel influences; they shun general society; they incline to shut themselves in their chamber in the house, to live in the country rather than in the town, and to find their tasks and amusements in solitude. Ã¢â¬ (The Transcendentalist, 1842) They withdraw from society because they have difficulty relating to people who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as spiritual, intelligent and idealistic as themselves. They are perfectionists who believe human life is flawed so they prefer to be in solitary with nature or a book rather than common people. Emerson criticizes this solitary nature. If they donÃ¢â¬â¢t use their gifts to benefit society then society wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to reach the idealist mindset and way of life. They also waste their gift when they donÃ¢â¬â¢t allow society to learn from them. (The Transcendentalist, 1842) This paper will take into account each definition and characteristic of the Transcendentalist and Transcendentalism through the works of some of the major leaders during the movement. This paper will explore the religious aspect of the movement through the works of the former Unitarian minister, Ralph Waldo Emerson. The political aspect of the movement will be explored through the works of the naturalist, Henry David Thoreau. The paper will conclude with the feminist and social reform aspect of the movement through the works of Margaret Fuller. Ralph Waldo Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson was an American essayist, poet and Unitarian minister who became one of the first American authors to influence European thought. He was born in Boston, MA on May 25, 1803. Seven of his ancestors were ministers and his father was also a minister. By the age of eighteen, Emerson was graduating from Harvard and taught school in Boston for three years. He then went on to Harvard Divinity School and a year later was approbated to preach by the Middlesex Association of Ministers. In a matter of four years he had become the minister of the Second Church of Boston and married Ellen Tucker, who unfortunately died seventeen months later. In 1832, Emerson resigned as a pastor because he felt as though the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s Supper should not be a permanent sacrament. He then went on to England and stayed for some time. He returned to Massachusetts in 1833 and became an active lecturer. (Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 2014, 1p. ) By 1836, Emerson had published his most detailed statement of belief in his first published book, Nature. He starts the book discussing the currents of the Universal Being that circulate through him making him part God or a piece of God. This is what transcendentalism is mostly about, the belief in the divinity of the human and nature. Through the universal being everything in nature is linked, including humans. NatureÃ¢â¬â¢s spirit expresses itself through us and creates a unity between God, spirit and humanity. Nature rewards the noble and those who perform good deeds. Therefore a person would have to be righteous in order to enjoy the beauty nature beholds. In chapter four he discusses how nature and language relate. Words are signs of natural facts and history that helps us understand supernatural history. The language people use to communicate is supplied by nature. A river represents the passage of time. The change of seasons represents the stages of growth. He then goes on to discuss how nature and human law have merged together, yet we still try to distinguish them. You can even see this today with the separation of church and state. In chapter five he discusses reason. Nature is a moral teacher and reason helps to offer ethical and spiritual insights to nature. Reason is linked to intuition, which as previously stated is transcendental. Though according to idealism, nature is something experienced and distinct from us. (Nature, 124-157, 1836) A couple years later in 1838, Emerson further discusses his views on religion in his Divinity School Address. He first discusses the intimate relationship between God and man; the unity of God, humans, and nature. Religion can only truly be achieved when man recognizes their direct access with God and realize that religion and virtue can only be understood from within. There is no mediator between man and God. Man can go directly to God. Since God is perfect man can also become perfect because of that access they have to him. Many denominations of the Christian religion teach the human to aim to be like Jesus, in doing so the person is just like Jesus and develops that perfection identified with Jesus. The moment you stray from this virtue that God and nature gives you, youÃ¢â¬â¢re instantly aware of it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like what modern Christianity would call conviction. You feel convicted and suffer the consequences but you strive to be so much like Jesus that you correct the wrong and get back on track. Jesus was the only example of someone who understood the divine nature of mankind because he was sent being used by God as an example for men. (The Divinity School Address, 230-245, 1836) Throughout the Divinity School Address, Emerson criticizes second hand religion. He believes it makes the church stationary. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s no room for reform when you offer people a religion with a fixed body of beliefs, principles, scriptures and rites. As many of his writings tell you, he is a strong advocate for the individual. Personal religion, the understanding of religion through the individual and intuitive insight is what he calls for. The individual needs to understand the religion for himself and apply his own intuitive interpretation but be careful not to change the traditions of the old church. (The Divinity School Address, 230-245, 1836) Ã¢â¬Å"I confess, all attempts to project and establish a Cultus with new rites and forms, seem to me vain. Faith makes us, and not we it, and faith makes its own forms. All attempts to contrive a system are as cold as the new worship introduced by the French to the goddess of Reason, Ã¢â¬â to-day, pasteboard and fillagree, and ending to-morrow in madness and murder. Rather let the breath of new life be breathed by you through the forms already existing. For, if once you are alive, you shall find they shall become plastic and new. The remedy to their deformity is, first, soul, and second, soul, and evermore, soul. Ã¢â¬ (The Divinity School Address, 244, 1836) Rather use the Sabbath and preaching to keep the religion alive and fresh. The preacher has to have intuitive perception to teach and give life to religion. Ã¢â¬Å"The spirit only can teachÃ¢â¬ ¦only he can give, who has; he only can create, who is. The man on whom the soul descends, through whom the soul speaks, alone can teach. Courage, piety, love, wisdom, can teach. Ã¢â¬ (The Divinity School Address, 238, 1836) It is the preacherÃ¢â¬â¢s job to restore the soul of his congregation by helping them realize that direct access they have to God. He must also be living proof of the word he proclaims. The people should know the life he lives so that they can know how individual spirituality can coexist with experience. Ã¢â¬Å"The true preacher can be known by this, that he deals out to the people his life, Ã¢â¬â life passed through the fire of thought. Ã¢â¬ (The Divinity School Address, 239, 1836) For Emerson and all transcendentalists, religion is vastly important. This movement is known for its religious aspects. Quite a few of the followers of this movement were ministers. For them religion should be sacred between the human, God and nature. They should take advantage of their direct relationship with God and use it to keep their Christianity fresh and alive. Through the righteousness one receives from this direct relationship, will come blessings from nature and they will be able to behold the beauty of nature. Henry David Thoreau Henry David Thoreau was born on July 12, 1817 in Concord, Massachusetts to a socially conscious Scottish mother and a French pioneer manufacturer father. Thoreau eventually went to Harvard College and graduated in 1837. A year later he set up a school with his brother John where he taught Latin, Greek and science until 1841 when his brother got sick. A year after his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 1842, Thoreau moved to Staten Island to be a tutor for EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s brother, William. He would also do handy work around the house. Eventually he met Emerson and lived with him and his wife doing handy work. Emerson used that time to influence him to be a part of the transcendentalist movement. In 1849, Thoreau publishes Civil Disobedience. In this writing he criticizes American politics. He wrote this during the time of slavery and the Mexican-American war. Thoreau Ã¢â¬Å"heartily accepts the motto, Ã¢â¬ËThat government is best which governs least;Ã¢â¬â¢ and I should like to see it acted up to more rapidly and systematically. Carried out, it finally amounts to this, which also I believe, Ã¢â¬ËThat government is best which governs not at allÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ (Civil Disobedience, 357, 1849) He feels as though an unjust government that allows for slavery and aggressive war is useless. He is also critical of democracy. Democracy puts forth a government that is given power from the majority to make laws beneficial to the majority. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily have the most legitimate viewpoint but they do have the most power. Therefore citizens are obligated to not follow the law because it is morally wrong. They must do what is right and distance themselves from government. Thoreau isnÃ¢â¬â¢t advocating for government to go away, he just wants a better government. Democracy was brought about to ensure individual freedom but yet it has intervened in the lives of many individuals and taken away the exact freedom it was meant to protect. Ã¢â¬Å"But a government in which the majority rule in all cases cannot be based on justice, even as far as men understand it. Ã¢â¬ (Civil Disobedience, 358, 1849) Majority rule isnÃ¢â¬â¢t based on justice. He proposes the ruling of individual conscience. Rulers should be moral. Since they are not, he advocates for rebellion. Thoreau in his own action refused to pay taxes and spent a night in jail. He refused to participate in government. He believed that the individual should not comply with unjust laws. They must break the law, if necessary. Expressing your opposition to slavery is not enough you must act on this objection. He calls for a peaceful revolution by nonpayment of taxes and not being afraid to take the prison time. Ã¢â¬Å"Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison. Ã¢â¬ (Civil Disobedience, 370, 1849) He feels as though prison is the only place a just man can Ã¢â¬Å"abide with honor. Ã¢â¬ (Civil Disobedience, 370, 1849) Throughout his essay, like many of EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s works, he is an advocate for the individual. The individual has a responsibility to live his own life according to his morals and regard society as secondary. Ã¢â¬Å"There will never be a really free and enlightened State until the State comes to recognize the individual as a higher and independent power, from which all its own power and authority are derived, and treats him accordingly. Ã¢â¬ He feels as though the government should only touch or put a law on what the individual allows it to. He praises the progress of America from an absolute monarchy to a limited monarchy and now a democracy but feels as though it shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop there. He feels as though there needs to be a government where the individual is valued more and have a say in what affects them personally. Not a government where the majority rules and the minority is left to fend for themselves. Over time Thoreau becomes fed up with the law. In 1854, he delivers a more radical and violent speech, Slavery in Massachusetts. He is calling for people to fight and murder the state. Ã¢â¬Å"Who can be serene in a country where both the rulers and the ruled are without principle? The remembrance of my country spoils my walk. My thoughts are murder to the State, and involuntarily go plotting against her. Ã¢â¬ (Slavery in Massachusetts, Line 49, 1854) In a Plea for Captain Brown he speaks on revenge of him and the slave. He is now calling for the individual to not only resist but have its revenge on the state. Thoreau is not a big fan of government. He is appreciative of the government for changing from an absolute monarchy to a limited government and then a democracy but he is waiting for the day where the government that governs least or not at all, unless the individual requests it, will come. A government in which the majority rules is unjust because it only benefits the majority and enslaves the minority. Therefore the individual must resist no fight, no take revenge. As matters got worse, Thoreau became more violent and radical. Emerson was also an abolitionist who criticized the government for not recognizing the divine nature of the individual. He argued for lesser government and a minimization of the power they have. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t approve of the government not allowing equal rights for all individuals, including women. (Politics, 1849) Sarah Margaret Fuller Sarah Margaret Fuller was born on May 23, 1810 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She was educated by her American lawyer father. At an early age she displayed noticeably intellectual powers and became a member of the group of distinguished writers and philosophers who believed in transcendentalism. From 1835 to 1837 she taught languages in Boston and later became principal of a school in Rhode Island. In 1840 she founded The Dial, a periodical on transcendentalism, with Emerson and later met Thoreau who became an editor. In 1839, she washeavily involved in a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement for intellectual and s ocial development, where she received her material for Women in the Nineteenth Century/ The Great Lawsuit. Man versus Men. Woman versus Women. (Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 2014, 1p) In this work Fuller is advocating for the equal rights of women and abolition of slavery. Both movements were essentially the same they were both looking to have the same rights as the majority. Though Fuller went about it a different way. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t just want the right to vote, equal pay and etc. She wanted the same self-reliance that a man was able to have. For she felt as though her soul was no different from a manÃ¢â¬â¢s soul. Everyone has a soul. If men gave women more intellectual and spiritual freedom, both genders could benefit as a whole. She is bringing forth a lawsuit on the behalf of women. Essentially suing the government for not allowing women to have the rights they are due. This piece allowed her room to bring forth a case to prove transcendentalism as an indeterminate sex and spiritually aware democracy. She also wanted to show them that they wrong in not offering women education. A woman can write a lawsuit. She was asserting EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s self-reliance spiritual regeneration, the soul being genderless and a different conception of women. She did this in the form of a lawsuit to prove that she could do anything society deemed as only for men. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t see either sex as greater than the other. She felt that one could not develop without the help of the other. (The Great Lawsuit. Man versus Men. Woman versus Women. , 384-423, 1843) Fuller argued that for a Woman to correct natural law she needs to be educated and have access to employment and politics. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights were vital to America. She argued that Ã¢â¬Å"all men are created equal. Ã¢â¬ (Declaration of Independence, 1776) The problem with this argument is that when the founders created the Declaration of Independence it was evident that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t consider all men, women, or minorities as considered equal. They were advocating for the minority. Thus she does say that if itÃ¢â¬â¢s a law for the nation then it should be a law for all that inhabits the nation. Ã¢â¬Å"Though the national independence be blurred by the servility of individuals; though freedom and equality have been proclaimed only to leave room for a monstrous display of slave dealing and slave keeping; though the free American so often feels himself freeÃ¢â¬ ¦still it is not in vain, that the verbal statement has been made, All men are born free and equal. There it stands, a golden certainty, wherewith to encourage the good, to shame the bad. The new world may be called clearly to perceive that it incurs the utmost penalty, if it rejects the sorrowful brotherÃ¢â¬ ¦It is inevitable that an external freedom, such as has been achieved for the nation, should be so also for every member of it It has become a law, irrevocableÃ¢â¬ ¦ Men will privately sin against it, but the law so clearly expressed by a leading mind of the age, All made in the likeness of the One, All children of one ransom, In whatever hour, in whatever part of the soil We draw this vital air, We are brothers, we must be bound by one compact, Accursed he who infringes it, Who raises himself upon the weak who weep, Who saddens an immortal spirit cannot fail of universal recognition. Ã¢â¬ (The Great Lawsuit. Man versus Men. Woman versus Women. ,389-390, 1843) Fuller calls for a refreshing of the American political culture through the transcendentalists concept of self-reliance. EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s transcendentalist view on self- reliance calls for the individual to apply their own conscience view on everything they see. She also calls the government out for violating natural law by hindering Americans from the liberty and equality they were promised. She says they need a moral law instead. Through transcendentalism they get this moral law when the individual is worried about the individual and does what is best for himself according to his values. (Self-Reliance, 318-339, 1841) Her way of going about getting the revolution that she wanted, was through a peaceful revolution advocating for equality through a spiritually aware, sexless democracy. She hoped it would lead to equality among genders and change the status quo of American Politics. If she could make the government see the wrong in gender discrimination then she could open their eyes to the evil of slavery. This could only be accomplished through divine law. Sarah Margaret Fuller was a woman denied the right of education yet she was surrounded by men that she was able to learn from. Her male counterparts not only taught her but learned from her. She used the ideas of both Emerson and Thoreau to fight against both feminism and slavery. The movements were very much so alike and many of the arguments she made applied to both. The one thing about her is that she not only was an advocate for transcendentalism but also a sexless society. She felt as though no gender, race or being was better than the other. Conclusion Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Sarah Margaret Fuller were the main leaders of the transcendentalist movement. Together and apart they raised issues and were a voice for the unheard. They all advocated for the individual to change themselves and worry about society second. If every individual changed himself then they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about society because eventually society would change as a result of everyone becoming idealists. Ralph Waldo Emerson took a European movement and made it American. Transcendentalism started in Europe but Emerson made it an American response to romanticism. (The Role of Transcendentalism in Shaping American Cultural Ideology, 248, 2013) Emerson is a strong believer in the divinity of human, nature and God. Through God everything is linked. Nature supplies language and reason gives us the knowledge to understand the spirituality and beauty of nature. Humans also have direct access to God and should use it. Even when they stray from the virtue that they are given by God and nature they can come back because they are directly connected to God. Even the modern Bible says, Ã¢â¬Å"For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. Ã¢â¬ (Holy Bible, Romans 3:23) Emerson is also a former minister of the Unitarian church. Unitarians believe in seven basic principles: (1) The inherent worth and dignity of every person; (2) Justice, equity and compassion in human relations; (3)Acceptance of one another and encouragement to spiritual growth in our congregations; (4) A free and responsible search for truth and meaning; (5) The right of conscience and the use of the democratic process within our congregations and in society at large; (6) The goal of world community with peace, liberty, and justice for all; (7) Respect for the interdependent web of all existence of which we are a part. (http://www. uua. org/beliefs/what- we-believe/principles) While you can see this evident in many of EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s works, he is a critic of second hand religion that passes down a fixed body of beliefs, principles, scriptures and rites. This makes religion stationary to him. He feels as though the individual should interpret the religion in a righteous way without rewriting the religion. He also advocates for the Sabbath and preaching to remain fresh so the religion does as well. Henry David Thoreau seems to be the most radical of the three. His earlier works suggest a nonviolent man being imprisoned for standing up to what he believes his wrong. Overtime he becomes an advocate for a slave rebellion. Thoreau feels as though as the times change and are getting worse, the slave should strike back. His works have inspired people like Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Just like Thoreau, MLK Jr went from nonviolent protests to making claims such as: Ã¢â¬Å"I will continue to condemn riots, and continue to say to my brothers and sisters that this is not the way. And continue to affirm that there is another way. But at the same time, it is as necessary for me to be as vigorous in condemning the conditions which cause persons to feel that they must engage in riotous activities as it is for me to condemn riots. I think America must see that riots do not develop out of thin air. Certain conditions continue to exist in our society which must be condemned as vigorously as we condemn riots. But in the final analysis, a riot is the language of the unheard. Ã¢â¬ (The Other America, 1968) A nonviolent person tends to get more radical when they see that matters are getting worse instead of better. Over time they get fed up and grow weary. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to accept all that violent people are throwing at you and still remain nonviolent. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to watch people be treated less than what the law allows because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re not the skin color of the majority that is making the rules. Thoreau is a harsh critic of the American government. Sarah Margaret Fuller takes on this criticism as well when she criticizes government for oppressing the people who are beneficial to the future of America. One of these transcendentalists even go as far as saying that America will become the laughing stock of nations across the world because it supposedly has a government run by the people yet enslaves its people. If you look at the contributions women and minorities have made to the American society, you can see just how crucial we all are to the American Dream. Fuller is saying that all men canÃ¢â¬â¢t be created equal and yet be treated less than the white man. We are all equal. There is no such thing as men being superior to men or white men being superior to all. Women can do just as much as men can do. If the government were to create its laws based on morals then we can have a just society. If they also allow for women to be educated and involved in the political realm they would see just how important women are. Through this research transcendentalism has proved itself to be a religious, literary, philosophical movement advocating for the individual. The individual has all the power it needs through the divine relationship it has with its God. The individual has to change themselves before they can even worry about society. The individual has the intellect and moral obligation to go against the evils of society, not to conform and be self-sufficient. Through transcendentalism Emerson, Thoreau, and Fuller inspired people around the world in the abolition movement, politics, religions, feminist movement and even many of their counterparts in the transcendentalist movement. It also helped to open the eyes of many during the nineteenth century and pave the way for the coming generation. Bibliography Charles Mignon H. Rose. N. d. Summary and Analysis of The Transcendentalist Glossary. (Cliffnotes) http://www. cliffsnotes. com/literature/e/emersons-essays/summary-and-analysis-of- the-transcendentalist/glossary. (Accessed May 4, 2015) Terminology N. d. Defining Transcendentalism. http://www. transcendentalists. com/terminology. html. (Accessed May 4, 2015) Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 1838. Ã¢â¬Å"The Divinity School AddressÃ¢â¬ Transcendentalism: A Reader (Oxford University Press, December 2000): 230-245. Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 1836. Ã¢â¬Å"Nature. Ã¢â¬ Transcendentalism: A Reader (Oxford University Press, December 2000): 124-157. Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 18. Ã¢â¬Å"Politics. Ã¢â¬ Ralph Waldo Emerson Texts. http://www. emersoncentral. com/politics. htm. (Accessed May 4, 2015) Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 1841. Ã¢â¬Å"Self-RelianceÃ¢â¬ Transcendentalism: A Reader (Oxford University Press, December 2000): 318-339. Emerson, Ralph Waldo. 1841. Ã¢â¬Å"The TranscendentalistÃ¢â¬ Transcendentalism: A Reader (Oxford University Press, December 2000): 366-380. Fuller, Sarah Margaret. 1843. Ã¢â¬Å"The Great Lawsuit. Man versus Men. Woman versus women. Ã¢â¬ Transcendentalism: A Reader (Oxford University Press, December 2000): 383-422. Fuller, Sarah Margaret. 1845. Ã¢â¬Å"Woman in the Nineteenth Century. Ã¢â¬ American Transcendentalism Web. http://transcendentalism-legacy. tamu. edu/authors/fuller/woman1. html (Accessed May 4, 2015) Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. 2014. Ã¢â¬Å"Emerson, Ralph WaldoÃ¢â¬ Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia (World Book, Inc. , Chicago): 1. Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. 2014. Ã¢â¬Å"Fuller, (Sarah) MargaretÃ¢â¬ Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia (World Book, Inc., Chicago): 1. Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia. 2014. Ã¢â¬Å"TranscendentalismÃ¢â¬ Funk Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia (World Book, Inc. , Chicago): 1. Henry David Thoreau. (2015). The Biography. com website. http://www. biography. com/people/henry-david-thoreau-9506784. (Accessed May 05, 2015) Kellman, Steven G. 2014. Ã¢â¬Å"Henry David ThoreauÃ¢â¬ Salem Press Biographical Encyclopedia. King Jr. , Martin Luther. 1968. Ã¢â¬Å"The Other America. Ã¢â¬ http://www. crmvet. org/docs/otheram. htm. (Accessed May 6, 2015). Paul. N. d. Ã¢â¬Å"Romans 3:23Ã¢â¬ The Holy Bible (NIV) Rus, Dana. 2013. The Role of Transcendentalism in Shaping American Cultural Ideology. (Communication Mass Media Complete, EBSCOhost) Thoreau, Henry David. 1849. Ã¢â¬Å"Civil Disobedience. Ã¢â¬ Transcendentalism: A Reader (Oxford University Press, December 2000): 546-564. Thoreau, Henry David. 1859. Ã¢â¬Å"A Plea for Captain Brown. Ã¢â¬ Transcendentalism: A Reader (Oxford University Press, December 2000): 628-646. Thoreau, Henry David. 1854. Ã¢â¬Å"Slavery in Massachusetts. Ã¢â¬ Transcendentalism: A Reader (Oxford University Press, December 2000): 602-614. Unitarian Universalist Association. N. d. Ã¢â¬Å"Our Unitarian Universalist PrinciplesÃ¢â¬ http://www. uua. org/beliefs/what-we-believe/principles. (Accessed May 6, 2015).