Friday, February 21, 2020

Phillipa Foot and Natural Goodness Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5250 words

Phillipa Foot and Natural Goodness - Essay Example When brought into comparison with contrasting philosophical models, Foot's Natural Goodness is not entirely without merit but it is unfortunately lacking in several features that are readily found in other philosophical structures. Natural Goodness is a set of moral ideas that are expected to differ from individual to individual; Foot understood that while each person might pander to his or her own moral code that these codes were never the same in two circumstances. Phillipa Foot makes a strong case for Natural Goodness but her critics make just as strong a case for its frailties. Foot is a British philosopher dedicated to the conception of philosophical models that explain daily occurrences in society. She is a descendent of the American president Grover Cleveland, was born and raised in the United Kingdom and studied philosophy at Oxford University. Foot's approach to philosophy has been largely aimed at deconstructing other non-cognitive approaches within the field that posit every action is based on sets of circumstances other than though processes. Her work is influenced heavily by Wittgenstein and through her belief that philosophy should be relevant to modern life and offer solutions, she has gained worldwide acclaim with subjects like the so-called "trolley problem" and for generally expanding the ideological pool of ideas in terms of cognitivism. Her book Natural Goodness attempted a different line of logic from her preceding publication, "Moral Beliefs", which presented a case for both cognitive and non-cognitive foundations for different types of ethical behaviour. "Moral Beliefs" expressed Foot's opinion that pieces of a moral character like courage or a sense of justice are cognitively trained, while moral actions are based on logical conclusion without the emotive qualities that they are usually assigned. Turning this idea around in Natural Goodness shocked many of her readers; Foot wrote that emotive qualities of any action or moral belief system were moot. Instead, each personal moral characteristic and each moral action performed by an individual are linked directly to a set of cognitive processes that have logically monitored related experiences and developed a unique moral set of guidelines. Natural Goodness As a philosopher, Foot has faced the issue of human nature incessantly throughout her career. The underlying question in each of her works is "why be moral". She has spent her career trying to discover the true nature of individual morality and understanding whether it is a cognitive reflex of sorts or whether it is indeed more of a non-cognitive feature of humanity as many of her contemporaries propose. Foot's years of study on the subject of morality has led her to stand by her own cognitive approach to ethical behaviour because as she sees it, human behaviour is indisputably based on cumulative experiences and the cognitive processes that deal with a constant influx of information. The brain is designed to deal with information by 'filing' memories in similar fields where they can be cross referenced to their outcomes, the surrounding circumstances and therefore they can each be grouped according to

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

The 17s Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The 17s - Essay Example However, the appointed prime minister in America George Grenville did not share the same opinion of other colonists and demanded America would be loyal to England. One of the major changes in England during this time period was the appointment of King George III. King George III was a young and inexperienced king who has been referred to as immature (Brinkley, 122). King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763, which forbid Americans to travel past a set line which was drawn along the Appalachian Mountains. This act was instated to limit fur trading in American further allowing England to control trade and commerce in America. However, this act failed to achieve its goal as Americans continued to trade with Indians. In retaliation England passed The Sugar Act of 1764. This act was meant to eliminate sugar trade between the colonies and the French and Spanish. To further enforce a dependence on England King George III passed The Currency Act of 1764 (Brinkley 123). This act prevented the colonies from issuing money and to retire all money that was being circulated. In order to increase taxes England issued the Stamp Act of 1765. This act taxed all printed documents in the colonies. Although these acts succeeded in decreasing England’s debits these acts further created conflicts between England and the colonies. For the time many Americans learned to live with England’s policies. During this period many Americans were still experiencing anxieties about the economic depression that occurred in the 1760’s. However, many American’s were beginning to get irritated with England’s policies. These Americans strengthened the argument for the independence of the colonies. The Quartering Act of 1765 further irritated the colonists by forcing them to quarter British troops in America (Brinkley, 125). In response nine colonies