Saturday, August 31, 2019
Positive organizational scholarship is an emerging discipline in organizational behavior and is about positivity in organization. The need for it emerged to bridge the gap between moral and rational objectives. It is not a new science, it is the new way of looking at things, itÃ¢â¬â¢s like you have just changed your glasses. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, society is facing extremely tough challenges in the form of global warming, natural disasters, economic recession, unprecedented homelessness, terrorism and the draining continuation of war. So at this moment of extreme negative happenings and uncertainty, what is needed to be emphasized and brought up is positive. With all this sadness and horror, where in the world does a science based on testing happiness, wellbeing, personal growth and Ã¢â¬Ëthe good lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ ? t into the modern-day agenda? So, Positive psychology; is the study of topics such as happiness, optimism, personal growth and subjective well being. It promotes the factors that allow the groups and communities to thrive or flourish. At the current stage in this world of negativity, positive psychology focuses on positive experiences at three time points a) past centering contentment; b) present focusing current happiness c) future including optimism and hope. We should know that what a good life is ? Aristotle and Plato used to believe that when people carried out a virtuous life they would become authentically happy. The happiness are of two types in positive psychology according to Seligman, one is hedonic happiness which is high level of positive affect and low levels of negative effect, in addition to high subjective life satisfaction. See more: how to start a scholarship essay Other is eudemonic wellbeing which focuses more on creation of meaning and purpose in life. (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011) A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The model of Seligman of Positive psychology is divided into three parts: The pleasurable life, the good life, and the meaningful life. The Ã¢â¬Å"pleasurable lifeÃ¢â¬ is about things like shopping, eating, drugging, meaningless sex, etc. The research is finding that having more pleasures does not increase life satisfaction. The Ã¢â¬Å"good lifeÃ¢â¬ as defined by Seligman is about understanding and using oneÃ¢â¬â¢s core strengths/virtues in work and love and play. He, in conjunction with Chris Peterson, developed a VIA Signature Strengths Survey found that Having a life of high absorption does correlate to life satisfaction measures according to Seligman. Lastly, the Ã¢â¬Å"meaningful lifeÃ¢â¬ is when a person uses his/her strengths for the purpose of something larger than him/herself. Choosing to live a life of faith, purpose, meaning, correlates to life satisfaction measures. Marty also sees this aspect of his model directly related to Positive InstitutionsÃ¢â¬âthose organizations that promote positive character development and/or meaning. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s mostly focused on non-profits and religious organizations but others are applying it to for-profit organizations. (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000) An approach that is positive to selection, development, and management of human resources in organizations has been emphasized by both scholars and professionals over the years. A wide variety of positively oriented high-performance work practices in placement, compensation, and motivation and their underlying strategies, structures, and cultures have also been extensively studied and supported for their contributions to organizational performance and competitiveness. Research and consulting by the Gallup Organization also supports the importance of positive, strength-based organizational cultures and human resource practices . (Buckingham & Clifton, 2001). For example, factors such as effective selection and placement practices that capitalize on employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ talents, clear and aligned goals and expectations, social support and recognition, and opportunities for growth, development, and self actualization have been found to significantly contribute to employee engagement, customer satisfaction, and ultimately organizational profitability and growth(Harter, Schmidt, & Keynes, 2003) On the academic side, the positive organizational scholarship or POS movement has been instrumental in providing macro-level scholars with a conceptual framework for organizing and integrating their research on positive organizations (Cameron et al. , 2003). Positive refers to the elevating processes and outcomes in organizations. Organizational refers to the interpersonal and structural dynamics activated in and through organizations, specifically taking into account the context in which positive phenomena occur. Scholarship refers to the scientific, theoretically derived, and rigorous investigation of that which is positive in organizational setting. (KIM S. CAMERON & CAZA, 2004). Positive organizational scholarship (POS) is considered an alternative approach to studying organizations; it is argued that POS plays a critical theory role in contemporary organizational scholarship. By using essays on critical theory in organizational science to consider POS research, and drawing from the principles of Gestalt psychology, it is argued that the important distinctions between POS and traditional organizational scholarship lie in POSÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis on positive processes, on value transparency, and on extending the range of what constitutes a positive organizational outcome. In doing so, it is concluded that the primary contribution of POS is that it offers an alternative to the deficit model that shapes the design and conduct of organizational research. (Caza. & Caza. , 2008) There are several reasons that exist for the neglect of positive phenomena in organizational science. They include a) Lack of valid and reliable measuring devices b) the association of positivity with uncritical science c) the fact that negative events have greater impact on people than positive events(Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Finkenauer, & Vohs, 2001) The first reason for the neglect towards POS concerning measurement and instrumentation, most positively focused at work up to now has been at the psychological level. For example only surveys had been used up till now for finding out anything related to it. Most scholarly work in POS has been conceptual and definitional rather than empirical. Little empirical work has been published. (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003). The article by Losada and Heaphy uses a model to estimate team effectiveness. Communication patterns in 60 top management teams were observed and coded in day long strategic planning sessions. The ratio of positive to negative communication was ranging among high, medium and low performing teams. Positive teams performed significantly better Similarly Cameron, Bright and CazaÃ¢â¬â¢s study in which they surveyed organizations across a number of industry types, and eventually they found out that the organizations scoring higher on virtuousness had a better performance than the other ones. The second reason to the neglect towards POS is that the topics related to it have sometimes been associated with non scholarly prescriptions. Hope and optimism for example have been interpreted as wishful thinking. POS uses the word scholarship to identify its scientific and theoretical foundations. It is committed to documenting, measuring, and explaining usually positive human experiences in organizations. The third reason for the dearth of POS illustrated by Baumeisteret et alÃ¢â¬â¢s concluded that the events that are negative for example losing money or receiving criticism will always have a greater impact on the individual than the positive events such as winning money or receiving praise. Many good events can overcome the psychological effects of a single bad one. In case the numbers of good and bad events are equal then the psychological effects of bad ones always outweigh the good ones. This tells us that the neglect of problems and challenges might threaten the survival of individual. And the neglect of positive might only result into regret or disappointment. (KIM S.Ã CAMERON & CAZA, 2004) Identifying the factors that lead to joy and happiness, hope and faith, and Ã¢â¬Å"what makes life worth livingÃ¢â¬ represents a shift from reparative psychology to a psychology of positive experience. Similarly, Positive organizational scholarship examines the positive side of organizational performance. It investigates positive deviance, or the ways in which organizations and their members flourish and prosper in especially humane and extraordinary ways. It investigates virtuous elements in organizations such as compassion, forgiveness, dignity, respectful encounters, optimism and positive effect, integrity, and wisdom. This emphasis parallels a new movement in psychology that is shifting from the traditional focus on illness and pathology (e. g.Ã , deviancy, abnormality, and therapy) toward a positive psychology that focuses on human strengths and virtues. (Dinnah Pladott, 2003) Pos is concerned with understanding the integration of positive and negative conditions. Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) and Positive Psychology are focused on understanding the conditions and processes that explain flourishing. What differentiates POS is an explicit interest in understanding and explaining flourishing in organizational contexts (including individuals, groups, units and whole organizations). Flourishing refers to being in an optimal range of human functioning and is indicated at the individual level by goodness, generatively, growth and resilience. AtÃ the collective level of groups and organizations, flourishing may be indicated by creativity, innovation, growth, resilience, thriving virtuousness or other markers that a collective is healthy and is performing in an Ã¢â¬Å"above normalÃ¢â¬ or positively deviant range. POS also focuses on the development of individual, group and collective strengths that represent forms of individual and collective excellence. POS unites existing domains of organizational inquiry focused on flourishing. This includes work on flourishing indicators such as creativity, engagement, flow, growth, health and well-being, as well as contributors to flourishing that consider features of the organization, group and job contexts.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Tradeoffs between an internal and external growth strategy goes together in an organization. The internal organization which focuses on the internal growth of the firm look upon the comforts for the internal people and the facilities are provided internally for the employees. The employees are boosted up and they are encouraged from giving them bonus, over time etc. the internal growth of an organization helps it to groom itself completely but this sets a backward area. The internal growth comprises on the employees moral, the expansion of the organization, more opportunities are overwhelmed for the employees and they are trained in such a manner that they become sharp and confident and boast them in an orderly manner. As a result only the internal growth is focused and the external has to go through a tough time as the only focus becomes the internal growth and the cost is ignored. The production cost gets higher and the demand is affected which leads to a decrease in the sale of goods in the market (Clare & Stutely, 1995). On the other hand when the external growth is focused the budget and the cost are kept in view and the people are mainly focused on the output in the market. Cost cutting is observed and this even leads to the suspension of employees from their job. The cost of the product is kept in view and then decisions are taken to avoid any kind of disturbance in the demand of the product. This creates misconception among the employees and the owners and a huge gap is created among relations. Employees are not focused and not considered for increment. These are the tradeoffs between external and internal growth strategy (Triant, 2006). In international strategy external growth is focused as it is more profitable for them. In international trade only the cost and the demand is focused. Profit is only the motive of the international traders and therefore external trade strategy is the best approach.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
The dying art of Jaffna Ã¢â¬Å"The next generation is not keen on getting their hands dirty and they dislike hard work. They do not want to take up the field of farming. They prefer being in air conditioned offices or being doctors and lawyers. They have dreams of their own and being a grape farmer is hardly one of themÃ¢â¬ For thirty long years Sri Lanka was torn apart by a malevolent war between the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s majority and minority; a war that not only claimed the lives of many, soldiers and civilians alike, but also destroyed much property and dammed the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s growth in uncountable ways.The whole of Sri Lanka grieved as one at all that was lost but it would not be incorrect to say that it was the north that suffered the most; it affected the education, economy, health, security, agriculture and overall the lives of the people of that part of the island. One trade that was deeply affected in the field of agriculture is grape farming, an industry that was and is carried out at a commercial basis only in the district of Jaffna. It was stated by Mr. Sivakumar, Provincial Director of Agriculture Northern Province, that before the war the district of Jaffna had over 250 acres of grape cultivation.The war brought upon difficulties in marketing the crops which resulted in gradually increasing numbers of farmers leaving the trade as it was no longer profitable. However since the ending of the war and the opening of the A9 road, new marketing prospects have been found and the trade has yet again been taken up and currently is spread over 110 acres in Jaffna. While cultivators who lost their farms during the war have been given the opportunity to revive their lost businesses, new cultivators too are being encouraged to take up the trade by the government said Mr.Sivakumar. The Ministry of Agriculture Northern Province is currently focusing on introducing new varieties of grape fruit to Jaffna farmers in order to harvest better crops. These new varie ties Sonaka and Sharad have been imported from India and are said to produce grape fruit that is larger in size and sweeter than the local grapes. This idea of importing new varieties has been supported by the Central Department of Agriculture which is the agency that gives permission for importing any sort of planting material, and also by the Ministry of Agriculture.The financial support has been given by Cargills food city as it is them who invested in the project. The total project investment has been Rs 222 million and 92. 2 million of this investment has been shared by the USAID. The imported seedlings have already been introduced, distributed and promoted among Jaffna farmers and is currently being cultivated and within another two years the peninsula will have a greater variety of quality grape fruit, noted Mr. U. L. M Haldeen, Secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture Northern Province.Grape crops are harvested twice a year; during the season of March- April and August- Sept ember. These are considered peak periods as it is the dry season during these months and for grape fruit the dry season is considered very important as this is the time that produces the best crops. However certain farmers prune in such a way that they can produce crops even off season. Grape cultivation, compared to other farming industries needs a fair amount of investment and effort to inaugurate and to maintain. To grow a quarter acre farm it costs approximately 150 thousand Rs just to install the pandal system.For the maintaining of such a farm it costs about another 150 thousand Rs stated Mr. Sivakumar. Even though it is a costly trade it brings in enough money to be called a profitable trade. Farmers have reported that a quarter acre farm brings in nearly 200 thousand Rs per season. This good income is one of the main encouraging forces for other cultivators to begin grape farms of their own which in return will increase the overall crops produced by Jaffna which would prove to be healthy for the economy of the district.On a positive note, locally grown grapes are cheaper than the imported ones as a kg of Jaffna grape fruit costs 200 to 300 Rs while the Australian imported grapes cost 600 to 700 Rs. However on the contrary the imported grapes are much larger in size and taste sweeter than the locally grown Israel Blue. Therefore, even now, customers who look for quality are willing to pay more to purchase the imported fruits, which pose a threat to the growth of the local grape fruit farming trade. This is the reason as to why he ministry is trying all possible options to grow grape crops that can compete with the imported ones. As there is already a fairly good market for Jaffna grapes in the southern part of the country it is their hope to widen this market by dominating the imported grape fruit market. As earlier mentioned maintaining a grape farm is both an expensive and difficult venture. Especially to the farmers of the north it is something much more than just a trade, it is a significant part of their lives. They have many beliefs and traditions entwined with the grapevines.It is said by these farmers that growing grapes is in many ways much like raising a child; it requires constant nurturing, caring and attention. There is a manner in which every move should be made: choosing the soil, installing the pandal system, preparing the drainage, watering the farm, fertilizing, and last but not least pruning should all be done in a proper manner to ensure the well being of the grapevines says Mr. Inuvil, a successful grape farmer. The preciseness of this trade makes it appear that grape farming in actuality is more or less an art than just an agricultural trade.Even though the number of farmers stepping into this field is on an increase, according to farmers the future of the industry remains uncertain. It is because of the lack of young farmers who are willing to follow in the footsteps of their precursors. According to Mr. Inu vil Ã¢â¬Å"The next generation is not keen on getting their hands dirty and they dislike hard work. They do not want to take up the field of farming. They prefer being in air conditioned offices or being doctors and lawyers. They have dreams of their own and being a grape farmer is hardly one of themÃ¢â¬ , and so it seems that the Ã¢â¬Å"like father like sonÃ¢â¬ days are long gone.It is evident that times have changed and that even in a country like Sri Lanka where traditions and culture are a main part of its peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s day to day lives, the younger generation is hardly found being limited by said traditions or cultures. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth is much more commercialized and they crave ways of earning riches in much easier ways than laboring away in farms and fields under a scorching sun. Another reason for the possible declining of future farmers is the perception that agriculture is an unprofitable or oor industry to be in as this is often the image that is projected by t he media and otherwise, however many successful farmers like Mr. Inuwil would strongly disagree. According to him, it is a matter of willing to be hard working, committed, sacrificial and patient; all traits that he says most of the younger generation lack. Here arouses the question; even though grape farming in the north is at present in a very good state, after the existing generation of farmers is long gone will the industry still survive or will it simply turn into yet another dying art? -Sandarangi Perera
Strategic - Essay Example Porter argues that strategy is about Ã¢â¬ËpositioningÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â not about Ã¢â¬Ëoperational effectivenessÃ¢â¬â¢. This essay is a critical discussion of this view. It also offers a comparison between PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s views and other perspectives such as those of MazzucatoÃ¢â¬â¢s, Mintzberg, Waters and Grant. Porter (1996 p. 62) attributes lack of sustainable profitability in an organization to the inability of management to differentiate between strategy and operational effectiveness. Under such circumstances, the tools for management such as benchmarking, outsourcing, and total quality management among others usually displace strategy, which lowers the chances of improving organizational performance through strategy. The operational effectiveness and strategy are significant for the organizational performance, but according to Porter, they are supposed to be treated differently as they operate in diverse ways. In his view, position accompanied by pattern, plan and standpoint are core to strategy. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s dissatisfaction with the management that focuses on operational effectiveness rather than strategic positioning is represented in figure 1.0, whereby the total of all the available best practices within the organization or the value generated by the organization at a certain charge, available machinery, expertise, management practices, and procured inputs is represented by the productivity frontier (p. 63). This curve indicates that an improvement in the operational effectiveness leads to the advancement of the organization in the direction of the frontier. The frontier on the other hand is continuously budges outward as the company acquires new skills and machinery. In order to maintain this shift of the frontier, managers largely invest in organizational learning, career development and such activities that enhance organizational improvement. Organizational competitiveness is not
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Investment Appraisal - 2 - Assignment Example The money accumulated is then invested in various investments, so that it generates further income. It is made sure that the income generated is enough to payout the pension benefits provided to the employees. The management of the funds is not necessarily separate from the management of the company. Usually these managers have expertise in investment techniques, in order to maximize the return upon the investments made. The fund portfolio is evaluated as how much percentage is invested in each portfolio. Also, it is taken into consideration how the return from each investment is accounted to the performance, of the fund as a whole. Based on the performance of the funds the investment appraisal is carried out. Fund Investment The pension fund is the accumulated fund, collected from the employers and employees. The earnings that this fund generates is accumulated within itself. The fund is managed by professionals with expertise in the related field of investment. The funds are to be utilized in fulfilling the financial needs of the company, which it has to bear in terms of constructive liability. The constructive liability being, to pay pension and other after retirement benefits to the employees. Pension fund are the accumulation of funds that are invested in various investments, where the returns are generated. ... The current portfolio is invested diversely in four divisions of investments, namely, UK Equities, Overseas Equities, UK Gilts and UK Property. A mere 5% of assets also exist in the form of cash. A) Review of Current Portfolio In the current portfolio of the assets, UK equities have a weightage of 50% of the fund. The assets held by the funds should not lose value and should be able to provide a handsome amount of return. Based on the risks associated with the assets of the fund, the main cause of concern is whether the fund performance is persistent and increasing or not (Christopher, et al., 1998). The portfolio of the funds consists of 25% of UK gilts investment which are the least risky of all the investments and also provide the least return. The appropriation of the funds in the current portfolio elaborates that 5% of cash is held. With the total fund size amounting to ? 1billion, this amounts to ? 50 million. This is an asset that is not invested and is losing value over the t ime. The cash that is retained in the portfolio is not considered to be healthy. Other liquid assets, such as equity stock, can easily be traded in the market. It should be considered as it will benefit the fund. This is because it shall be providing a return, thus minimizing the impact of inflation and reduction in the value of money. The majority of the portfolio consists of UK security and amounts to the ? 500 million. This amount is invested in the equity stock of the companies listed in the stock exchanges in United Kingdom. The performance of the fund is mainly concerned with the amount of return and the rate of return that it provides accounting for the risk associated with it too (Chan, et al., 1995). The performance of
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Inflation returns to Euro zone - Essay Example One of the main indicators of the inflation pressure is the producer prices. The reason is that unless these prices are absorbed by retailers using profit margins which then translate to consumer prices. Thus, other the bond buying program that had been introduced by European Central Bank in March, other measures undertaken to boost the economy of Euro zone is cutting down main interest rate and the deposit rate. However, it is still too early to stay in the comfort zone about this issue. It is still early to indicate the trajectory of the future policy since inflation will continue depending on the prices of oil. This is considering the weak euro area growth. Firstly, the dynamics of the oil prices continue to drive much of the inflation in 2015 mostly in the short term. In addition, despite the rise in MayÃ¢â¬â¢s core inflation, more of the general momentum of inflation is likely to remain muted against an overall of still domestic demand of the euro area together with the capac ity in the labor market. Considering that most of the policy maker (Morris 1) spent most of 2014 fearing the worsening of deflation, then the worry is that if the prices are entrenched, then the consumers and other businesses are likely to delay their purchases. Thus, there are unlikely dips into the level of deflation with oil prices diluting the risks of deflation. The overall weakness of the euro and the improved economic activity of the euro zone are other important factors in diluting the risk of deflation.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Living with a long term, multiple pathology - Essay Example About 1,131 deaths were attributed to asthma in 2009, and 12 of these were less than 14 years of age (Asthma UK, 2012). For depression, it is considered the fourth leading cause of disability and disease in the world (NICE, 2011). In the UK, the prevalence of this disease in 2006 was 2.6%, and these rates are often higher in cases where chronic illnesses are present and among women, the rates are often higher (NICE, 2011). This study shall first provide a background for the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s case. Secondly, a plan of care would be presented. Thirdly, the delivery and evaluation of care shall follow, and finally, a summary and conclusion will end this discussion. This paper is being carried out in order to improve the management of multiple long-term conditions among patients. Background The patient Bruno (not his real name) was admitted into the emergency room after an asthma attack. Before the admission, Bruno was self-managing his asthma attacks through his regular asthma medication s. He is now 70 years old. His current admission is also associated with depression. On further evaluation of his symptoms, it was determined that he was feeling very sad and lonely. I met the patient after being assigned to his care as a student nurse on my sixth week of placement. The patientÃ¢â¬â¢s heart rate was at 112, but he had low blood pressure at 96/50. His temperature was about 100 degrees while his respiratory rate was 22. He had poor skin turgor and this indicated that he needed immediate medical attention. This is why this patient was chosen for this paper. Based on initial laboratory tests, Bruno had the following condition: Creatinine 14.4 mg/dl, BUN 212 g/dl, bicarbonate 10 meq/l, chloride 145 meq/l, potassium 6.9 meq/l, sodium 176 meq/l, platelets 554 and hemoglobin 18.5 g/dl. BrunoÃ¢â¬â¢s life has been a very busy one, he worked as an economist and he was often able to easily work out math problems in his head. In his 50s, his children were all fully grown and he then participated in fund raising activities for local charities (Carrier, 2004). Bruno suddenly noted that he was losing his mathematical ability. He committed frequent mistakes and he often forgot to pay bills, turn water off, and he sometimes burned his meals (Catton, 2006). Bruno has always been mild-mannered and he seldom got angry, however, he started losing his temper especially when tired and stressed. He often held himself together long enough to get home and then lose his temper and his emotions there. This affected his relationship with his family (Titelman, 2003). He never told his doctor everything that was happening and as months went by, his mental health got the better of him and he became more difficult to live with. He finally decided to take time off work to resolve his issues and get well. After the diagnostic exams, he was diagnosed with early onset of asthma (Croghan 2006). He was also diagnosed with depression. Long-term diseases are those which also call for long-term medical attention (London Health Observatory, 2011). These long-term diseases are also diseases which often require constant care, care possibly lasting for years. These conditions include cancer, hypertension, chronic asthma, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, end-stage renal disease, and mental health issues like schizophrenia, senile dementia, and depression (London Health
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Annotated bibliography - Essay Example During such occasions, when the gathering of people is in a happy mood, delicious vegetarian food is served. The question is if vegetarian food is good for one day, why the same food should not continue on an ongoing basis? Ã¢â¬Å"When a new born arrives: it is a new soul coming to the family. Killing another creature for celebration will bring "bad karma" to the family and therefore, it is not a good practice. It is best to celebrate the birth of a child without fleshes of animals.Ã¢â¬ (Warrior) Some people believe that killing animals as sacrifice to gods and goddesses during specific festivals will be auspicious. This is hypocrisy of the highest order as blood-letting and causing intense suffering to any animal or bird can never bring happiness to the viewers or anyone. Similarly when we invite some guests to celebrate some happy occasion, should we invite them to show to them the skills of the butcher? Behind every non-vegetarian dish prepared, the curse and anguish of the anim al killed is bound to be there. The points elucidated in this article are true and revealing and it is the duty of human beings to show kindness to all animals and birds. 2- Williams, Erin E. Why Animals Matter: The Case for Animal Protection. Prometheus Books, 2007 Most of the Americans wear masks as for the treatment of animals. Their approach is contradictory. On the one hand, they spend lavishly on their pets, and their support for non- vegetarian food of different types is difficult to understand. Birds and animals are used for food, medical experiments and similar activities and the killing process is appalling. The author has dealt with this subject well, and shows how the industries dealing in animals, with their goal to maximize profits, use procedures that cause untold miseries to the animals. Humane treatment of animals is not only the right of the concerned animal; it is the right of the humankind. Leave aside the ethical and philosophical reasoning. Abuse and exploitati on of the animals must stop. Some of the animals and snakes are skinned alive, put in boiling water, before being killed, for the reason that meat produced after such procedures is tasty and will fetch more prices in the market. The author has taken a realistic and balanced look at the problem and has emphasized the need to establish a better relationship with animal and bird kingdom, as they are part of Nature and serve a cause for harmony and human happiness. Humankind is yet to know the intricate working of Nature and how, cruelty to animals will affect our lives. The author has done well to highlight the subjects of animal welfare, the environment and social justice, and how they are mutually connected. The younger generation must read such books and shape their outlook as per the valuable suggestions provided therein. 3- Saunders, Deb Bowen. Stop the annual Taiji dolphin massacre, make your children proud. The Japan Times COMMUNITY Web: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/text/fl201209 11hn.html, Accessed on May 21, 2013 This is an article by Deb Bowen-Saunders to stop the annual Taiji dolphin massacre. He makes this appeal to the mayor of Taiji and to the people and appeals to them to make their children proud, by putting an end to this mind-less cruelty on the poor, beautiful creatures, the dolphins. The author of the message is from Keperra, Australia. He recalls the calamity of natural disasters undergone by Japan recently and how
Saturday, August 24, 2019
History homework - Essay Example The four noble truths provide an overview of what Buddhism expects. The third noble truth that is contentment, Buddha assures people of happiness away from suffering forms the discussion. Buddhism is concerned about spiritual nourishment. In this understanding, there are monks and nuns who assist in serving and guiding people. Therefore, material possessions are important in giving the monks and nuns gifts for their services. In temples, material possessions are used as offertories to the gods, pleasing the dead relatives as well as offerings to guests (Karunaratna Suvimalee: pp 70). Material possessions and worldly goods have to bring happiness in life in everyone, people next to them as friends, relatives, family members or business partners. From this account, I agree with the Buddhism philosophy since it elaborates the true use of genuine wealth. Currently, everybody in the city is a workaholic. This shows lack of purpose in life since they spend most of their time working. The lack of purpose has made many people greedy for material wealth in terms of money, property accumulations and businesses. With such greed in the mind, they focus on satisfying their needs while forgetting the community. Children during their early stages in development play around with toys to learn the art of being independent. In adolescent stages, people interact with goods to learn negotiation skills and the art of individualism. For instance, women use commodities for their personal representation while men use commodities in finding and exploring new ventures that promote the economy. Human beings have the freedom to choose what they deem right and enjoyable in life. However, during this process according to Buddha, they have to make wise choices that will ensure effective use of
Friday, August 23, 2019
The business management in the modern world - Essay Example This trend of training by the persons majored in different subjects brought new types of theoretical tools in to the business management. This developed in to critical management studies. The Critical mangement studies finds its roots in US inventions in Eurpoe and from a series of UK labour process conferences. They began in 1983 and reflected the views of Braverman's Marxist theory of business management. Discussion: The critical management perspective can be termed as provocative and revolutionary theory regarding the business management. This theory views critically every aspect of conventional management which was supposed to be the outcome of conventional wisdom. The thoughts of handful of elite will be questioned and the methods will be critically examined.1 The critical study of the management made possible the insights into the unexplored places in the study of the management and resulted in many issues, which found the necessity to research. This type of research activities brought conflict management and human resource management to the fore in the business management. Instead of considering the employees as tools in the business they are now considered as a part of the business. Critical studies reveal that the management cannot be viewed as neutral. It can be considered as complex phenomenon and is a subject of serious examination. The critical management demands critical view and analysis of the organizational management. The ethical, ideological and intellectual inspiration from Habermas and Foucault resulted in innovative application of the management theories. The theory, behavior regarding the organization, marketing, accounting, information systems and operational research can be examined critically and their relevance according to the need can be established. Accounting is an important wing and practice regarding the management. The critical thought regarding management demands changes in accounting practices. The process of accounting and the views of the individuals who practice accounting must be changed according to the needs of critical view and modern needs. The most important outcome regarding accounting due to critical thought is transparency. The laws like Sarbanes and oxley in US and many laws developed transparency in accounts of corporate business. This change brought a lot of change in management processes also. The practices required the change in monitoring by auditors and the cooperation extended by the management. 1 Institutionalism Thinking about institutionalism is also a part of the management and critical theories found a choice in it, which need change. The formation of an institution frames a policy. The social causation that is based around the notion of path dependence brings historical institutionalism. The concept of work utilizing appears to be use the institutionalism consistently. This is in very little agreement with its definition. The use of analytical frame work is explicit in critical studies. The history of institutionalism can be used for avoiding the failures in critical aspect of institutionalism. Archer in 1995, 1996 and 2000 argued that it presents an empirically testable model of path dependence. This model can provide ontological and organizational analysis. The modern industry is witnessing the need of computerisation and this resulted in rise of
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The Human Resource Environment Essay Section 1: The Human Resource Environment Role of Human resource management and Competitive Advantage Smit, 2006 recommends the idea of gaining competitive benefit to organizations wishing to engage in strategic activities that would be tricky for competitors to copy or reproduce fast Smit, 2006 suggest that firms can use HRM to add competitive advantage for the reason that it is tricky for contestants to duplicate. (Smit, 2006) That is, while knowledge and capital can be gained by almost someone at any-time for a price, it is tricky to obtain a ready pool of extremely qualified and very motivated staff. It is more and more difficult to plan policy in an era of irregular change. In todays intensely spirited and worldwide marketplace, sustaining a competitive benefit by becoming a low-cost leader or differentiator puts an intense premium on having a greatly dedicated and competent labor force. (Smit, 2006) Devoted workers play a strategic role in a company attaining its competitive advantage. In a growing number of corporations, Human Resources are observed as a source of competitive benefit. There is great recognition that characteristic competencies are obtained through extremely developed worker skills, characteristic organizational cultures, Management procedures and systems (Smit, 2006) Read more:Ã Human Resources Investigation What role does quality initiatives play in that area? Total Quality Management is a quality-initiative all-pervasive thought and spans all the purposes, procedures and activities assumed in an organization. It spotlight on Incremental and nonstop improvement that is oriented and directed towards the attainment of Customer approval. (Smit, 2006) This is of special relevance during financial Downturns when the retention and pleasure of existing clientele is of great value. TQM helps by not only growing Productivity and making procedures and Personnel more and more effective and well-organized, but also by given that cost effectual and competitively valued products to the client. (Smit, 2006) therefore Total Quality execution through Human Resource Management have an effect on the entire gamut of all activities, strategy, procedures and plans that an organization employs throughout the path of its business. It attempts to streamline and decrease redundancy, incompetence and waste. It institutionalizes the procedure of Change Management and maps a path for the company to put systems in position that will permit it to adapt itself to any shifts in the Internal or external surroundings. (Smit, 2006) Improving Capital Efficiency enhanced through Restructuring of Debt, a procedure in itself. Total Quality involves improving all procedures inside an organization. Hence, improving cost efficiency through improved utilization of Debt capital or negotiations for lesser interest rates can be distinct as a procedure development. (Smit, 2006) Ã Section 2: Assessment and Development Most important compensation challenges in the modern workplace Strong monetary compensation and monetary rewards is the most significant compensation challenges in the contemporary workplace. The workers compensation system in the United States, includes of independent state based and countrywide programs for federal workers, covers about 125 million workers and has evolved and developed since its inception in 1911. Coverage has considerably broadened in range to allow for the addition of most work-related injuries and illnesses. The cost of workers compensation care has also improved. Several of the cost drivers have been recognized, and many approaches have been taken to address medical cost containment. (Smit, 2006) There is a need to stability cost manage with ensuring advantage adequacy and excellence of medical care. It is probable that managing workers compensation costs will carry on to be a challenge in the predictable prospect. The cost of workers compensation care affects all stakeholders comprising workers, employers, providers, state workers compensation controllers, legislature, and insurers. A continued promise to excellence, accessibility to care, and cost repression, and being alert to rising issues that can affect these elements, will assist make sure that workers are afforded available, high quality, and cost-effective care. (Smit, 2006) Changed Compensation practices According to some description, compensation practices have freshly been undergoing marked changes, with a growing number of firms said to be alternating lump-sum payments for usual pay increases, allowing for greater changeability of remuneration across persons or groups, and making greater use of profit sharing or stock choices. Lots of these practices are outside the scope of the characteristic measures of economy-wide recompense growth. furthermore, intensified use of these schemes must to heighten the receptiveness of overall compensation costs to trade conditions and could also, in theory, increase productivity. (Smit, 2006) Section 3: Topics in Human Resource Management Corporations in U.S. will face five mainly critical HR challenges in the near future: organization talent, organization demographics, becoming a knowledge organization, managing Work-life equilibrium, and managing change and cultural change. (Smit, 2006) Talent shortages emerge, both in U.S and in fresh markets overseas, and companies must take steps now if they anticipate to address these shortagesÃ¢â¬âand prevent disaster. numerous companies already have important actions Ã planned: Our investigate indicates that the number of Ã U.S companies that move to new locales such as Pakistan in order to add access to burgeoning groups of gifted workers will roughly Ã triple during the next eight to ten years Ã (Smit, 2006) Ã Managing the Loss of Capacity and Knowledge One of the most successful ways to reduce a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s exposure to demographic Risk is applying a complete system of job families across the corporation. Such a system Clusters workers whose skills and exact experience generate opportunities for job exchanges Across numerous levels (Smit, 2006) Ã Managing the Aging of the Workforce An aging labor force will have suggestion on among other issuesÃ¢â¬âproductivity, the aptitude of the labor force to work in shift surroundings, the need to inspire employees in a dissimilar way, innovation probable, illness-related absenteeism and labor costs (Smit, 2006) References Smit, (2006). HR, Show me the money; Presenting an exploratory model that can measure if HR adds value. New York
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
History of the U.S. Income Tax Essay The income tax of the United States of America, be it federal, state and local, has changed over time. Different circumstances pushed the government to create taxation and to amend the existing taxation laws. During the pre-Revolutionary War era in the 1700s, taxes were not imposed by the colonial government as their need for tax revenue did not exist. The colonies, on the other hand, had greater responsibilities therefore, had greater need for tax revenue. Because of this, different types of taxes were imposed by the colonies. The southern colonies imposed taxes on imports and exports while the middle colonies imposed taxes on property and a poll tax on each adult male. The New England colonies, on the other hand, collected taxes through property taxes, income taxes and excise taxes. When the English Parliament realized the need for money to pay for the French war, it imposed different taxes to the American colonies through the Stamp Act which was enacted in 1765. Later on, this Stamp Act was revised to include taxes for permits, newspapers, legal documents and playing cards. The Townsend Act was later on enacted by the Parliament to include taxes for paint, tea and paper . After a decade of paying taxes, there was much resistance to the tax imposed by the Parliament. During the Boston Tea Party in 1773, colonists, dressed as Native Americans, threw 342 chests of tea from a ship of the British East India Company to the Boston Harbor. In 1775, Isaac Backus during the Massachusetts Assembly said that Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not all America now appealing to Heaven against injustice of being taxedÃ¢â¬ ¦We are persuaded that an entire freedom from being taxed by civil rulersÃ¢â¬ ¦is not mere favor from any men in the world but a right and property granted us by God, who commands us to stand fast in itÃ¢â¬ . Taxation is considered as one of the factors that led to American War for Independence hence, when America gained its Independence, Article 1, Section 9, Article 4 of the U. S. Constitution in 1787 declared that there be no capitation or any direct taxes imposed on the citizens. The national government had very little responsibilities during these times and relied only on donations given by the States for its revenue. However, in 1789, the Founding Fathers realized that it could not function at its efficiency if it relied only on other governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ donations hence the Federal Government was granted the authority to impose taxes. The sensitivity to taxation was still existing at this point in time hence the government has to be careful on how it impose taxes so as to minimize resistance from its people. Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury in the 1790s, decided that a Ã¢â¬Å"sin taxÃ¢â¬ was imposed . Through the Ã¢â¬Å"sin taxÃ¢â¬ , only items which society thinks is deviant or vice were taxed such as distilled spirits, alcohol and whiskey. However, this still led to the armed revolt called Whisky Rebellion by a group of South Pennsylvania farmers. Still during the 1790s, the Federal Government imposed direct taxes to owners of houses, slaves and land. However, when Thomas Jefferson was elected to office in 1802, these direct taxes were removed and for the succeeding 10 years, only excise taxes were imposed. The reason for this was because he realized the inverse relationship of tax rates and tax revenue wherein the higher the taxes imposed on the citizens, the slower the economy grows hence the tax revenue declines. A cut in the rate of tax means that income for the family will become higher, expenditures become higher and hence, the economy experiences growth. During the 1812 War, the need for tax revenue resurfaced again hence taxes on the sales of gold, jewelry, watches and silver were imposed. Treasury notes were also issued to raise money. However, in 1817, the Congress revoked these taxes and for the next 40 years, government revenue was based on high customs duties and sale of government or public land . In 1861, when the Civil War erupted, the Revenue Act of 1861 was enacted. This Act restored the previous taxes on personal income. This tax was similar to the modern income tax because it was based on a gradual taxation of withholding tax from its source. A person earning $600 to $10,000 a year paid 3% tax. Persons with income higher than $10,000 paid a higher rate of tax. In 1862, the debt created by the war was rising at a rate of $2 million per day hence there was another need for the government to increase its revenue. Because of this, the Congress passed another tax imposition on items such gunpowder, playing cards, telegrams, iron, pianos, yatchs, drugs, among others. After the Civil War, the need for revenue declined and hence the income tax was abolished and only the excise taxes remained from 1868 to 1913. The War Revenue Act in 1899 was enacted to raise funds for the Spanish-American War. Government revenues, thru this Act, was raised through sales of bonds, tax imposition on recreational facilities, beer and tobacco. However, the Supreme Court realized that the people of America were becoming aware that the high tarrifs and excise taxes were not good to the economic welfare of the nation and that these taxes were usually paid by the less affluent citizens. Hence, there was an agreement that business income instead was imposed tax. By 1913, Congress enacted a new income tax law which imposes 1% to 7% for persons with income above $500,000. These people earning above $500,000 was only 1% of the total United States population . During World War I, the United States needed to increase its revenue again to fund the war. The 1916 Act raised the tax imposition from 1% to 2% and could go as high as 15% for those with income of more than $1. 5 million. By 1917, the government still needs further government revenue to pay for the war, hence the War Revenue Act of 1917 was enacted. Through this Act, exemptions were lowered and tax rates increased that those who earn $40,000 needs to pay 16% tax rate. In 1918, the tax rates were further increased. Those citizens paying 1% had to pay 6%. The highest rate in 1917 was 15% but during 1918, this was increased to 77%. Due to this increase in tax rates, government revenue increased from $761 million during 1916 to $3. 6 billion in 1918. After the war, the government revenue rose and the government decided to cut taxes to 1% bottom rate and 25% top rate . The Great Depression during the late 1920s and early 1930s pushed the government to once again increase the tax rates. The Tax Act of 1932 was enacted and by 1936, the bottom tax rate was at 4% and the top tax rate reached 79%. When the World War II came, another price hike came into place which altered the tax rates. Those with taxable income of less than $500 paid a bottom rate of 23% taxes while those earning taxable income of over a million dollars paid about 94% of taxes . The tax structure in the United States was also heavily altered in that the number of taxpayers increased from 4 million during 1939 to roughly 43 million during the World War II. Throughout all these years of implementing taxation, the government learned a very important lesson which until now is being valued by government officials and economists and has affected the tax laws enacted in the country Ã¢â¬â the marginal dollar is far more important to the economy compared to the tax rate being used. The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 was implemented with this important lesson in mind. Unlike the previous taxation laws, this Act was intended to focus on marginal tax rates and it also included consumption taxes. However, due to the deep recession experienced by the country in 1982, the government was once again faced with the need to increase tax rates to overcome budget deficits. Following the 1982 recession was an economic boom which lead the country to believe that marginal tax rates are very important for a strong economy. During the Reagan administration, tax rates were further reduced and had a broader base through the Tax Reform Act of 1986. This reduced tax rate from 50% to 28% while business taxes were reduced from 50% to 35% . In 1997, the Taxpayer Relief Actof 1997 was enacted. The significant party of this Act was the Per Child Tax credit which benefited the lower-income families. During the Bush administration in 2001, the government experienced a budget surplus of about $281 billion hence a tax cut was once again conducted . This tax cut included raising the Per Child Tax Credit from $500 to $1,000 per child, as well as increased the Dependent Child Tax Credit. Until now, this tax law is being implemented and is expected to boost economic growth for the country.
Selection Of Needs Analysis Approaches ESP (English for Specific Purposes) is defined as an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learners reason for learning (Hutchinson and Waters, 1986). In other words, ESP courses are designed with the intention of meeting learners needs. Moreover, they also indicate that ESP is just one branch of EFL/ESL, the tree of which is nourished from communication and learning. Thus, like other forms of language teaching, ESP courses are designed in order to meet the certain purposes which learners are required to learn English for. They can be academic purposes (EAP) or work/training purposes (EOP/EVP/VESL). In another classification, the purposes of ESP courses can be for Science and Technology, Business and Economics or Social Sciences. As those above-mentioned purposes are quite various, it raises the necessity of Needs Analysis, which is considered as the irreducible minimum of an ESP approach to course design (Hutchinson and Waters , 1986, p54) or a vital step in the process of designing and carrying out any ESP courses (Songhori, 2008) or the very first step of course design process which provides validity and relevancy for all subsequent course design activities (Johns, 1991). With such increasingly importance of Needs Analysis to ESP course designers, this paper is conducted as a practice of carrying out Needs Analysis. However, due to the timing constraint as well as the requirement of the course, the paper just focuses on choosing an appropriate Needs Analysis approach to collecting the information of a specific group of learners needs. The paper also provides a detailed rationale and some samples of the means of data collection in order to support for the selection. NEEDS ANALYSIS THEORIES Since Needs Analysis is performed in order to find out not only the necessity, the lacks and the wants of learners towards the target situations (target needs) but also the learning needs or what learners need to do in order to learn, there exists different approaches to Needs Analysis, namely Target Situation Analysis, Present Situation Analysis, Pedagogic Needs Analysis. Deficiency Analysis, Strategy Analysis or Learning Needs Analysis, Means Analysis, Register Analysis, Discourse Analysis, and Genre Analysis. The term Target Situation Analysis (TSA) was first introduced as communication in the target situation in Chambers article (1980). However, in his book published in 1978, Munby already mentioned the target situation which, according to him, was closely concerned with the target needs and target level of performance and this has been followed by many researchers (Hutchinson and Waters, 1986; Dudley-Evans and St. John, 1998; West, 1994) with inheritance and development. Yet, whatever similarities or differences they share, they all use TSA with the same aim of finding as thoroughly as possible the linguistic form a prospective ESP learner is likely to use in various situations in his target environment. For example, Hutchinson and Waters (1986) considered Target Needs Analysis as in essence a matter of asking questions about the target situation and the attitudes towards that situation of various participants of the learning process (p59) and most of those questions are closely related to Munbys parameters. The second type of Needs Analysis that needs mentioning is PSA or Present Situation Analysis which may be posited as a complementary to target situation analysis (Robinson, 1991). As presented from its term, PSA is used with the attempt to find out the information about learners at the beginning of the course. It may estimate the strength and weaknesses of learners in all aspects, including language, skills as well as learning experiences. It may also involve information about the teaching and learning settings or the user-institutions reference. The information for PSA can come from a well established test or from learners previous learning results. Deficiency analysis or lack analysis is claimed to form the basis of the language syllabus (Jordon, 1997) since it is supposed to provide information about both the present situation and target situation and thus, the gap between them for the course designer to consult. Strategy analysis or learning needs analysis is another important type that the course designer should take into considerations when he/she designing an ESP course. It is concerned with learners view of learning or their learning preferences. It tries to establish how they wish to learn rather than what they need to learn and consequently help course designer to find ways of motivating and enabling learners to reach the goals of the course. Means analysis is considered to provide the course designer with information about the environment in which the course will be run (Dudley-Evans and St. John, 1998, p125) and consequently, the approach attempts to adapt the ESP course to the setting of the learning institution. The last type mentioned in this paper is Pedagogic Needs Analysis proposed by West (1998). It is considered to be a combination of all above-mentioned approaches with the hope to compensate all shortcomings of the above approaches through the combination. However, in some cases, it does not always work. In the history of ESP development, there may exist some other Needs Analysis approaches. However, due to the limit of this paper, only nine above approaches are selected to be briefly described. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF TARGET LEARNERS As aforesaid, this paper only focuses on finding a suitable Needs Analysis approach for a specific group of learners. More specifically, they are twenty 2nd-year students of Electronics and Telecommunications Department, College of Technology. They have just finished two terms of General English. According to their learning results of the first two terms, they are pre-intermediate English learners. This ESP course is their 3rd and also the last term of learning English at university and it is supposed to be a preparation for them to be ready for their future career of telecommunication engineers. The course is planned to last four months which will be divided into fifteen weeks of learning. In each week, learners are intended to attend seven 45-minute periods which will be allocated in two different mornings. The institution (i.e. College of Technology) assures to provide all needed facilities for the process of learning and teaching. For instance, essential teaching aids like tape/CD players, computers, projectors and a well-equipped library are always available for use. Teachers are also promised to have best conditions of finding appropriate materials as well as creating teaching environments to assist to process of learning and teaching. Above is all provided information about the target group of the English course for Telecommunication which is taught in the third term of the university curriculum. APPROACH SELECTION WITH A DETAILED RATIONALE In order to support the process of designing the most appropriate and effective course for the above-mentioned target group, it is necessary to give an adequate profile of the above-mentioned learners needs by means of a combination of two approaches: (1) target needs analysis and (2) learning needs analysis. The reasons for such selection are discussed as followed: Firstly, as aforesaid, an ESP course is designed to meet some certain needs of learners by bridging the gap between a current state and a desired or target one (Graves, 2000). Thus, it is necessary for the course designer to be aware of the learners states at both point of time. In other words, he/she is suggested to carry out both TSA and PSA. However, in this situation, since the target group of this ESP course is in their 3rd term at university, the course designer is quite sure about the current state of the learners as well as the current state of the institution facility. He/She knows where the learners are and what the learners lack. He/She also know what kinds of facilities are available to support the process of learning and teaching. Consequently, there is no need of carrying out a PSA for learners existing state of language/skills or the conditions of learning but there must be a necessity of TSA which is supposed to gather adequate and specific information about how the l anguage will be used, what the content areas will be, who the learners will use the language with, where and when the language will be used, etc. (Hutchinson and Waters, 1986) or about purposive domain, setting, interaction, instrumentality, dialect, communicative event, communicative key and target level (Munby, 1978). In conclusion, TSA is hoped to be a reliable indicator which can determine the destination of the course. It can also act as a compass to give the direction for the journey of teaching and learning. Nevertheless, TSA only provides the course designer with the information of the target situation. In other words, TSA can just answer the question of what to teach and how to teach. In this case, that is not enough. As this term is a part of a learning process, it is also crucial for the course designer to take into considerations the learners learning preferences. Thus, the employment of another needs analysis (i.e. learning needs analysis/LSA) is a good choice to make the process of course design perfect. Moreover, it is believed that the learning preferences and strategies for GE (general English) may be different from those for ESP. As a result, the course designer needs to know these differences in order to design an appropriate course for most of the learners. All in all, a combination of TSA and LSA is considered inevitable and is expected to offer the ESP course designer a full profile of both target situation and learning preferences for the 3rd-year students of Electronics and Telecommunications Department, College of Technology. SAMPLES OF THE MEANS FOR DATA COLLECTION As decided in the previous part, a combination of TSA and LSA is employed to give a detailed profile of target situation and learning preferences in order to support the design of the English course for Telecommunication. More specifically, both formal and informal means will be used to collect the data for the needs analysis at the beginning and during the course. At the beginning of the course, formal interviews with the managers of some telecommunication foreign companies will be carried out to identify the target situations in which learners will have to use the language. Below is some sample questions that may be included in the interview: Who will your employees speak English to? Native or non-native speakers? What is their level of main interlocutors knowledge? Expert or layman? Where will your employees have to use English? In the office, at the workshop or in the meetings? Can you mention some other situations? Firstly, an informal questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions will be delivered to learners to find out the preferences of learners learning. Below is one sample question that may be included in the questionnaire: What kinds of materials do you want to work with in the course? (Please tick on the box the materials you want to work with) Textbooks provided by teachers Authentic materials (manuals, articles about telecommunication in newspaper, magazines, etc.) provided by teachers Authentic materials (manuals, articles about telecommunication in newspaper, magazines, etc.) searched and selected by learners A mixed use of all kinds Informal interviews with ex-learners (i.e. learners who already took the English course of Telecommunication) will be also utilized to specify the information of what they think should be included in the course as well as the way they think the best way to learn the target language. Below is a potential question that may be included in the interview In your point of view, which is the most important language skill that learners of this ESP course should improve? Reading? Speaking? Writing? Or listening? Why do you think so? During the course, another informal questionnaire will be delivered to learners of the course in order to check whether the course goes right or not.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The complex fate of human beings in this tragic yet beutiful world and the possible fortunes of the human spirit in a subsequent life is what interests us all in life, and this is the central theme in most of Emily Dickinsons work. In her enticing poetry, Emily establishes a dialectical relationship between reality and imagination, the known and the unknown. By ordering the stages of life to include death and eternity, Dickinson suggests the interconnected and mutually determined nature of the finite and infinite. She aims to elucidate the incomprehensible, life, death, and the stages of existence. The subjects of life and death have been a traditional theme in poetry and they are central to most of Dickinsons poems. Love and ecstacy are also primary in her poems and they are often cconcerned with celestial betrothal. In the poem "Death is a subtle suitor", Dickinson illustrates the love-death symbolism, an explicit rendering of deatyh as the lover who transports her in his carriage to be married in a proxy wedding. Dickinson uses the metaphor of a funeral as the wedding journey to eternity, setting up a system of correspondences between the changes brought about by death ans the changes in role of the unnamed partners in this spiritual love game. 'Death', to be sure, is not the true bridegroom but a surrogare, which accounts for his minor role. He is the envoy taking her on this curously premature wedding journey to the heavenly alter whre she will be mariied to God. When 'Death ' first appears as a suitor she changes from a girl to a blushing virgin. This must be a 'stealthy Wooing,' for though she knows it will result ina glorious new status for her, she is vaguely aware that it will mean a renunciation of all the world she has known. She shows a maidenly resereve by the manner in which she forces to conduct his courtship, by 'palid imnnuendoes' and a 'dim' approach.' But he does win at last and attains his goal, for he is a 'supple Suitor'. The second change comes twith great suddenness for it is the kiss of death, transforming her from virgin to bride, or at least the betrothed. Then 'Death' bears her away 'in triumph,' both from a substitute wedding and towards a final one, to the sound of 'brave Bugles' such as would accounce a royal merriage, or the Day of Doom.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Contaminated Motives The very essence of money creates an urge of human nature to obtain it, and have an excess of it. Fame and money go hand in hand; if you have one, you have the other. One also must understand that money equals power; people aspire to money. When people come into wealth and begin rising to the top of the social ladder, history dictates they usually become corrupted, and sometimes compromise their personal values. Do they believe this is for the common good, or merely for personal benefit? In the novels Great Expectations and The Great Gatsby, the protagonists, Pip and Jay Gatsby respectively, believe their prospers are used for the common good, but in reality many values are being compromised. The clichÃ ©, “Money cannot buy happiness'; exemplifies the opposite of what Pip and Gatsby believe, in that both utilize their money in what they believe to be a valiant attempt to bring the women they love into their lives. Along the way to achieving this “goal';, they violated et hics, which in turn changed them as people. Although money serves as a driving force for individuals, it does not counter the negative effects that are induced during the process. Therefore, money is the root of all evil. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Despite the two novels possessing slight differences, they coincide in many aspects. When Pip acquires the money from the unknown benefactor, he moves away under Jaggers guidance and barely ever returns to his hometown. In the beginning, his reasons for coming back were to visit Joe, Biddy, and Miss Havisham, but eventually he changes and seeing the people previously so important to him appears to become a chore. This is ironic because not even a year ago he looked up to Joe, and regarded him as a father, now he refuses to see him on account of Joe being a common blacksmith. This is one of the first changes that we see in Pip after his knowledge that he will have “great expectations'; and become educated. Pip’s entire reason for becoming a gentleman is to attract Estella, and make her return the feelings of love that he holds for her. Ultimately, it appears that Pip is willing to cast away his old life and friends, to become a gentleman and, in essence , obtain Estella. This perfectly illustrates an immense change in Pip when he compromises his beliefs to... ...scholarships from all over the country. Today, we see his persistent acts to be different via tattoos, hair dyes, and many antics. The point is that Dennis Rodman strived to be uncommon just like Pip. The only difference is, they achieved their goals in vastly different ways and the results were extremely different. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In both cases, money appeared to be a catalyst in order to achieve public stature. Pip and Gatsby utilized money and prestige as a means of obtaining the women they desired. Everybody wishes to be rich and famous at one point in life, but few actually achieve it. History imparts us with evidence that money cannot buy happiness, but rather can corrupt peoples morals, and ethics. In conclusion, happiness that lies within is far greater than any superficial, temporary happiness that money can purchase. 1228 words Works Cited Dickens, Charles. “Great Expectations'; Penguin Classics, 1996 Fitzgerald, F. Scott. “The Great Gatsby'; Matthew J. Brucolli and Samuel J. Lanahan, 1991 Downey Jr., Robert. http://mrshowbiz.go.com/people/robertdowneyjr/index.html Rodman, Dennis. http://mrshowbiz.go.com/people/dennisrodman/index.html
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The Second World War gave rise to a multitude of new ideas which changed the course of modern society, the idea which has had the greatest impact on the world as a whole is the concept of the superpower nation. To be a superpower, a nation needs to have a strong economy, an overpowering military, immense international political power, and related to this, a strong national ideology. It was this war (WWII), and its results that spawned the formation of superpowers and lead them to experience such a preponderance of power. To understand how the Second World War impacted birth of superpowers it is important to first understand and examine the causes of the war. The United States gained its strength in world affairs from its status as an economic power and as a heavily industrialized nation. In the years preceding the war and the Great Depression, America was the world's largest producer and arguably had the strongest and most stable economy. In the USSR at the same time, Stalin was implementing his 'five year plans' to modernize the Soviet economy. From these situations, similar foreign policies resulted from widely divergent origins. Roosevelt's isolationism emerged from the wide and prevalent domestic desire to remain neutral in any international conflicts. It was widely believed that America entered the First World War simply in order to save its industry's capitalist investments in Europe. Whether this is the case or not, Roosevelt was forced to work with an inherently isolationist Congress, only expanding its horizons after the bombing of Pearl Harbor. He signed the Neutrality Act of 1935, making it illegal for the United States to ship arms to the belligerent governments of any conflict. The act also stated that belligerent nations could buy only non-armaments from the US, and even these were only to be bought with cash. In contrast, Stalin was by necessity interested in European affairs, but only to the point of concern to the USSR. Russian foreign policy was fundamentally Leninist in its concern to keep the USSR out of war. Stalin wanted to consolidate Communist power and modernize the country's industr y. The Soviet Union was committed to collective action for peace, as long as that commitment did not mean that the Soviet Union would take a brunt of a Nazi attack as a result. Examples of this can be seen in the Soviet Unions' attempts to achieve a mutual assistance treaty with Britain and France.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Unit 1: Develop and evaluate operational plans for own area of responsibility Unit code: B1 Unit reference number: Y/600/9588 QCF level: 5 Credit value: 6 Guided learning hours: 25 Unit summary This unit helps learners to develop, implement, monitor and review operational plans for own area of responsibility. Assessment requirements/evidence requirements Assessment must be carried out in way that is consistent with the requirements outlined in Annexe D: Assessment Strategy. To pass the unit, learners must meet all of the assessment criteria. Assessment methodologyThis unit is assessed using evidence from the workplace, i. e. observable performance, physical products of work (such as reports, plans, correspondence etc), witness testimony, discussion and questioning etc. Simulation is not allowed. Learning outcomes and assessment criteria NoLearning outcomesAssessments Evidence typePortfolioDate 1 Be able to align objectives of own area of responsibility with those of own organisation. 1. 1 Identify operational objectives within own area of responsibility. PPC work plan Activity sheetsRef 2 App A + B4/3/13 1. Analyse objectives of own area of responsibility in relation to those of own organisation 2 Be able to implement operational plans in own area of responsibility2. 1 Assess risks associated with operational plans and include contingency arrangements 2. 2 Identify support from relevant stakeholders 2. 3 Implement operational plan within own area of responsibility 3 Be able to monitor and evaluate operational plans in own area of responsibility3. 1 Monitor procedures within the operational plan 3. 2 Evaluate operational plans and implement any necessary actions.
Friday, August 16, 2019
The Global Media Intelligence Report September 2010 Ã ® The Global Media Intelligence Report Companies worldwide will spend nearly half a trillion dollars on advertising this year. But spending that money wisely is more of a challenge now than ever before because of the changes brought about by the growing importance of digital media. To meet that challenge, marketers need dependable data about evolving economic conditions, consumer spending patterns, media consumption habits and competitor spending levels.And multinational corporations and their agencies need to compare and contrast these trends across regions and countries. Finally, there is the inexorable global shift to digital, where both consumers and marketers are spending more time and money. Yet for all but the most developed markets, there is a lack of objective, credible information available to help marketers strategize and execute their digital marketing plans. Which is precisely why we created this report. In true coll aboration, eMarketer produced this Global Media Intelligence report with the help of Starcom MediaVest Group (SMG).The report covers media usage developments, advertising spending and marketing trends for six regions worldwide, as well as detailed information for 29 countries. Under the leadership of Kate Sirkin, EVP of Global Research, the SMG team helped identify and gather the most compelling data from leading research sources in both local and core global markets. eMarketer then crunched the numbers, evaluating and analyzing data from multiple research sources, including SMG and other respected firms that have longstanding presence and deep knowledge of their respective geographic markets.We believe this intelligent Ã¢â¬Å"aggregation and analysisÃ¢â¬ approach yields a far more accurate and objective picture of the global marketplace than any single research source could provide. We are sincerely grateful to the research firms who generously agreed to have their data featured in this report, the names of whom are too numerous to be listed here, but can be seen in the many citations in the pages that follow. Laura Desmond Global CEO Starcom MediaVest Group Geoff Ramsey CEO and Co-Founder eMarketer Asia-Pacific Overview Australia China India Japan South KoreaAP-1 AP-2 AP-6 AP-9 AP-12 AP-16 CE-1 CE-2 CE-4 CE-6 CE-7 CE-11 LA-1 LA-2 LA-5 LA-7 LA-9 LA-11 LA-15 LA-17 MA-1 MA-2 MA-4 MA-6 NA-1 NA-2 NA-6 WE-1 WE-2 WE-5 WE-9 WE-14 WE-16 WE-18 WE-22 EAP-1 ECE-1 ELA-1 EMA-1 ENA-1 EWE-1 Central and Eastern Europe Overview Bulgaria Czech Republic Romania Russia Serbia Latin America Overview Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Mexico Peru Venezuela Middle East and Africa Overview Egypt Lebanon Saudi Arabia North America Overview Canada US Western Europe Overview France Germany Italy Netherlands Portugal Spain UK EndnotesAsia-Pacific Central and Eastern Europe Latin America Middle East and Africa North America Western Europe The Global Media Intelligence Report September 20 10 i Executive Summary Take a global advertising/media industry that has been going through seismic changes (most notably, the inexorable shift toward digital channels), add a worldwide recession, and you have a situation that can confuse even the savviest marketers. The purpose of this Global Media Intelligence report is to help you make sense of the often-conflicting data and shed some light on the trends that will have the most impact on your business.Some of the most obviousÃ¢â¬âand the most important: I The global recession sped up the shift of marketing dollars to digital in large developing markets such as China, India and Brazil. I Mobile phone usage has become the dominant form of communication in emerging markets, in some cases even overtaking TV. I In developed regions, marketers can engage the consumer at multiple access points (e. g. , TV, online, mobile, out-of-home) virtually simultaneously, providing opportunities for cross-channel and integrated campaigns. But th e data also gives a glimpse into early-stage developments that should give marketers food for thought.For example: I Is the aging of the large UK internet audience an early indicator of a trend that could lead to greater penetration throughout Western Europe? I Given the disparate internet adoption rates throughout Central and Eastern Europe, will mobile be more attractive to marketers in the region? I The recession accelerated the shift of budgets to the Asia-Pacific region; will that pace of change continue? I What accounts for the relatively strong media markets in Latin America compared with the rest of the world? I How can marketers make the most of opportunities in the Middle East and Africa, which, while still relatively mall, show the fastest growth rates in the world? I Is the increase in at-home media usage in North America a temporary shift spurred by the recession, or does it signal a permanent change in media consumption habits in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading online marke t? In the following pages, you will find detailed data that should prove invaluable in helping you decide which media to use, which consumers to target with which digital platforms, and which regions and individual markets offer the best potential return on every marketing dollar in 2011 and beyond.The Global Media Intelligence Report September 2010 ii The Global Media Intelligence Report: Asia-Pacific September 2010 Ã ® Asia-Pacific With the exception of Australia and Japan, AsiaPacific weathered the global economic recession from 2008 to 2009 better than the rest of the largest regional markets in the world. This was due primarily to the rising consumer classes of China and India, whose full potential remains to be tapped. Many in marketing and advertising believe that Asia-Pacific and other developing regions represent the greatest opportunities for industry growth.Most agree that the global recession accelerated this shift. eMarketerÃ¢â¬â¢s own data on advertising spending su pports this theory. Asia-Pacific is in second place behind North America in total media ad spending and will continue to pull away from Western Europe as the market matures, reaching $173. 2 billion in 2014. Asia-Paci? c Total Media Advertising Spending Metrics, 2009-2014 billions, % of total and % change 2009 Worldwide Asia-Paci? c Ã¢â¬â% of worldwide Ã¢â¬â% change $465. 1 27. 6% -5. 0% 2010 $482. 6 28. 0% 5. 3% 2011 $495. 0 28. 5% 4. 4% 2012 $523. 4 29. 2% 8. 3% 2013 $543. 30. 0% 6. 6% 2014 $564. 0 30. 7% 6. 3% eMarketer excludes mobile advertising from online spending estimates. Based on the high penetration of mobile devices in Asia-Pacific, mobile spending should also contribute to overall increases in spending on digital media. Asia-Paci? c Online Advertising Spending Metrics, 2009-2014 billions, % of total and % change 2009 Worldwide Asia-Paci? c Ã¢â¬â% of worldwide Ã¢â¬â% change $55. 2 $11. 0 19. 9% 5. 7% 2010 $61. 8 $12. 6 20. 4% 14. 7% 2011 $68. 7 $14. 6 21. 2% 15. 5% 2012 $79. 0 $17. 4 22. 0% 19. 4% 2013 $87. 4 $19. 6 22. 4% 12. 6% 2014 $96. $22. 2 22. 9% 13. 3% Note: includes banner ads, search, rich media, video, classi? ed, sponsorships, lead generation and email; excludes mobile ad spending Source: eMarketer, June 2010 118084 118084 www. eMarketer. com South Korea and Japan consist of experienced media usersÃ¢â¬âthe youngest generations have been exposed to the internet, broadband and mobile digital technologies for their entire lives, while older generations have worked with most of the technology still in use today. The result is penetration rates of 90% or higher for both traditional and digital media.China and India are at the other end of the spectrum, as the younger generation begins to enter a middle class with high expectations for advancement and access to all media. This demographic includes young and newly urbanized consumers who make up the fastest-growing population of internet users in the world, pegged by eMarketer at 581. 6 million in 2010. Australia falls in the middle with a more diverse, Westernized economy. However, government investment in broadband technology over the next six years could vault Australia into a eading position for internet use and media consumption worldwide. Along with South Korea and Japan, Australia already has a well-developed online ad market, accounting for around 20% of total media spending. $128. 4 $135. 1 $141. 1 $152. 8 $162. 9 $173. 2 Note: includes direct mail, internet (excluding mobile), magazines, newspapers, outdoor, radio, TV (broadcast and cable), yellow pages and other Source: eMarketer, June 2010 118083 www. eMarketer. com 118083 The region will increase its share of worldwide ad spending from 28% in 2010 to 30. 7% in 2014.Higher growth rates will allow AsiaPacific to close in on North America and eventually surpass it sometime beyond the current forecast period. Online advertising will show double-digit growth from 2010 to 2014, but from a smaller b ase. By 2014, online ad spending in the region will hit $22. 2 billion, 22. 9% of the worldwide total. Online will increase as a portion of total spending in Asia-Pacific from 8. 6% in 2009 to 12. 8% in 2014, lagging behind the share of dollars that will go online in North America and Western Europe. The Global Media Intelligence Report September 2010 AP-1 AustraliaAs in most developed countries, total media spending dropped in Australia during the recession, with researchers estimating declines of 5% (Carat Insight, March 2010) to 8. 4% (ZenithOptimedia, April 2010; MAGNA, May 2010) in 2009. This year has brought a return to growth, with all researchers predicting moderate increases in spending through 2012. Spending forecasts this year converge around $10 billion. The online picture is rosier, with 2009 growth estimates of at least 9%. Double-digit increases are expected through 2012, when both MAGNA and ZenithOptimedia predict online ad spending ill reach $2. 1 billion in the cou ntry. The importance of online advertising in Australia reflects its advanced internet user population. eMarketer estimates that more than two-thirds of people in Australia accessed the internet at least once a month in 2009. In 2010, internet users reached a total of 14. 8 million and are forecast to hit 16 million in 2014. Data from Roy Morgan Single Source Australia indicated that while TV maintained its status as the most widespread medium with 92. 6% penetration, mobile phones surged to become the secondmost-widespread device, at 85. % in 2009. Internet usage nearly doubled as users spent 7 more hours online per week in 2009 than in 2005. Web users in Australia are among regional leaders in social media usage as well. Population in Australia, 2000-2010 millions 21. 3 21. 5 20. 5 20. 7 21. 0 19. 8 20. 0 20. 2 19. 1 19. 3 19. 5 Media Penetration in Australia, 2000, 2005 & 2009 % of adult population 2000 TV viewers* Mobile phone owners Magazine readers Internet users (home) Newspa per readers** Radio listeners* Pay-TV subscribers 93. 4% 51. 0% 88. 1% 39. 6% 85. 0% 68. 9% 21. 3% 2005 92. 5% 78. 4% 85. 9% 64. % 83. 8% 65. 2% 25. 1% 2009 92. 6% 85. 2% 80. 7% 75. 6% 75. 6% 61. 7% 25. 9% Note: ages 18+; *on a normal weekday; **past 7 days; excludes community newspapers Source: Roy Morgan Single Source Australia, December 2009; provided to eMarketer by Starcom MediaVest Group, June 1, 2010 115347 115347 www. eMarketer. com Demographic Pro? le of Media Users in Australia, 2009 % of total Internet users (home) Mobile phone owners TV viewers* Pay-TV subscribers** Radio listeners* Magazine readers Newspaper readers*** Gender Male Female Age 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Income
The lamentable condition of the Amazon River is featured in the You Tube video Ã¢â¬Å"The Amazon Dries UpÃ¢â¬ . It shows major portions of the river drying up with boats stranded, fish dying because of lack of oxygen, and people traveling far in search of clean water to drink. Going through this video brought up feelings of sadness and anxiety at the same time because of the deplorable status of the environment in the area, and the apparent hopelessness of the situation. Forests have been denuded for the benefit of a few but with a predictably great impact in the offing. It is scary to think about the future basing from this video especially since this video was done in 2006 yet. The emphasis of the film is against deforestation and more emission of greenhouse gases which are said to be the culprits behind the drought in the Amazon. Environmental degradation (Ferris & Stein, Ch. 15) has emerged to become one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s major social problems as humans have acknowledged its effects like global warming (Ferris & Stein, Ch. 15) and climate change. The problem is actually one that is of a major dimension because many people will be affected if these problems continue to worsen. As we feel the effects of global warming, not a lot of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s inhabitants may survive and some species may become extinct. Furthermore, climate change can bring about devastations of unknown magnitudes. Just the recent flooding and earthquakes which occurred this year are some typical examples of unexpected destruction to the environment, to man and property. Furthermore, ongoing extinction of species may cause ecological imbalance which may also result to other unanticipated results which are still unknown, and may never be reversed. The environment needs to be everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s concern. Taking things one step at a time will not bring anyone to the goal immediately, yet slowly but surely, the goal can be reached. Small simple steps like the 3 Rs : Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, making use of car pools, conserving electricity will all add up to make the goal of making the environment more habitable an attainable possibility. The worst case scenario is one where the leaders we look up to seem to be passive in their stance regarding these issues. Nevertheless, it is still a conglomeration of efforts which will be the best way to address these environmental issues. Works Cited Ferris, Kerry & Stein, Jill, The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2009. Print.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Aliya Crochetiere Mrs. Crass Theater History April 11, 2011 Kabuki Theatre: JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s National Treasure Kabuki Theater has captured the hearts and minds of the Japanese audience from its beginnings over four centuries ago to the present day. In Kabuki wild spectacles of song and dance transpire, different from anything familiar to the Western observer. Its color, drama, and richness of costumes and characters contrast wildly with the simplicity and functionality of which the Japanese people live their lives. Kabuki Theater seen today has been shaped by historical tensions about women, religious influences in Japanese society, and is considered to be the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s theater filled with unique styles and ideas. In order to understand this wild spectacle and its unique techniques of staging and characters, one must look behind the make-up and understand the dramaÃ¢â¬â¢s widespread roots deeply intertwined in JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s popular culture. The word kabuki, as shown in the history of name, is a type of acting based on the arts of singing and dancing (Miyake 11). However, mixed in this display is a variety of hidden aspects such as make-up, costumes, and special effects that make a Kabuki performance unlike any other. Kabuki is a very complicated, highly refined art involving stylized movement to the sounds of instruments such as the Tsuke that takes many years to master (National Theater of Japan). Unlike Noh Theater it does not use masks, but incorporates a vast variety of styles and effects, from the realistic to the grandiosely extravagant through cosmetics (Leiter 18-22). The colors used have symbolic meanings. For example, blue usually indicates evil and red is used to express strength or virtue. Wigs are utilized to inform the audience about the characters age, occupation, and social status and are worn by all characters in Kabuki (The British Museum). In the theater, each character has a defining moment, called a Mie. The Mie displays the characters personality. The actor assumes a position significant to his character and experiences his climatic moment (Binnie and Wanczura). It usually involves a movement of the head, a crossing of eyes in a powerful glare, and shaking. In this artistic spectacle there are two main styles of acting involved, Aragoto and Wagoto. Aragoto, the rough style, contains heroes who are physically strong, impulsive, fierce, and martial (Brandon). This is reflected in the actors' dramatic, stylized make-up and costumes, and in their exaggerated poses. In contrary, Wagoto features softer, young playboys in more friendly stories. The main manner of Wagoto acting is tender, romantic, or humorous (Encyclop? dia Britannica). Although the styles differ, Kabuki will always be a form of theater that requires a mastery of technique, especially when playing a woman. Unlike Western Theater, Kabuki in the present day features no females on the stage. One feature that sets Kabuki apart from other theater is the Onnagata, a male actor who plays the parts of women. Kabuki was founded in 1603 by Izumo no Okuni, a Japanese princess, with her troop consisting of mostly females (Spencer). The women entertainers, many of whom were prostitutes, performed exotic dances and risque skits causing an instant sensation in Japan with the common people (The British Museum). The idea of women exploiting themselves while creating public messages was preposterous and as its popularity grew, the government was quick to take control of the situation (Lombard, Allen, and Unwin). The prostitution within the theater was believed to be corrupting society and from the 1620's onward, the government attempted to bring them under control. In 1692, women performers were banned from the stage. It soon became necessary for males to take the part of the females and the art of the Onnagata was formed. The Onnagata does not aim to imitate the behavior of a real woman. Rather, he becomes an artificial and idealized symbol of female characteristics as seen from a man's interpretation (Binnie and Wanczura). Those who have mastered the art of the Onnagata have the ability to transform a potentially grotesque situation into an emotionally moving truth. The Onnagata does not rely on facial beauty but the talent and skill to make a room full of people believe the authenticity of a teenage girl played by a 70 year-old man. Today, as a result of issues of women corrupting society and the upper class, females have yet to re-appear on the stage. However, because Kabuki is directed at the common people of Japan, it is believed that women will once again grace the stages of Kabuki (Matsuda). Though Kabuki today is generally more accepted as a National Theater of Japan, it originated from the middle class, the common people of Japan, as a way to express their suppressed feelings under restrictive social conditions (Lombard, Allen, and Unwin). At the time when Kabuki was developed, distinction between the commoners and the upper class was more rigid than ever before, so Kabuki acted as a safe means of protest against dramatic and social conventions. Multiple times it was banned from the inner cities because it threatened with dangerous thought and popular freedom (Lombard, Allen, and Unwin). Kabuki was charged with undermining the morals of the warrior class, yet the government was unable to outlaw the theater completely. It had made its way into the social lives of the Japanese people as it developed eclectically from other art forms. As the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s theater, Kabuki has a very unique relationship between the actors and the audience. The most celebrated feature of the Kabuki stage is the hanamichi, a long extension from the back of the audience to the stage (Scott 18). This symbolizes the close connections that the actors have with the viewers. A continuous interplay of shouts from the audience and reactions from the actors take place in the Kabuki Theater. The show is often interrupted for an actor to address the crowd, which is responded to with praise and encouragement (Encyclop? dia Britannica). The audience hollers the name of their favorite actor, showing a much closer connection to the actors than the directors (Matsuda). For the first time, the actor is in a position of control of his own actions and originality. Because Kabuki programs run from dusk till dawn, in the theater one can find restaurants, lunchboxes, and snack shops. The audience will eat, drink, and talk all during the performance, treating it much more like a social gathering than a trip to the theater (Miyake 25). Unlike western theater a trip to Kabuki is supposed to a social gathering. The audience enjoys the whole dayÃ¢â¬â¢s event, not just the individual performances. This is in sharp contrast to Noh Theater, a much more serious and formal theater of Japan that incorporates slow, meditational movements under extremely rigid rules (Matsuda). The Noh performance is in slow motion and is much more popular with the military class than the common people of Japan (Mitchell and Watanabe 1-5). Buddhism, Shintoism, and Confucianism have all had a weighty effect on Japanese philosophies of life. This in turn is reflected in Kabuki drama in an innumerable number of ways. Action in Kabuki plays usually revolves around Confucian notions of filial piety duty and obligation, and the Buddhist traditions such as the impermanence of things or the law of retributive justice (Scott 28). The religious part of the drama is expressed through actions and characters, such as the komuso, who wears a large basket-like head covering and plays a flute (Scott 28). The komuso, who appears in multiple plays, is a religious figure in Buddhism, a priest of the Buddhist sect seen preaching about the religion with his flute. During the Edo period when Kabuki was developed, Confucian philosophy defining the hierarchy of social relations was recognized as official thought and caused an uprising of the common townspeople expressed in Kabuki Theater (Ernst 14). A favorite Kabuki technique is to have a dying man recall and regret all past misconducts and return to his innocent state by time of death (Scott 28). This extends to the Buddhist philosophy that man is fundamentally good and all sins committed during his lifetime are purged upon death. This as well as many other examples shows strong Buddhist influences in Kabuki. Shintoism shines through the drama as well. As one of the most common religions in Japan, Shintoism was also the religion of KabukiÃ¢â¬â¢s founder (Spencer). Many religious ideas and themes are apparent in both historical and domestic Kabuki plays. Kabuki Theater, flamboyant and spectacular, has evolved into one of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural treasures. The drama has developed from controversial ideas of women in society, the religious influences of Buddhism and Confucianism, and from the heart of Japan, the common people, as a free way to express themselves. Although some may argue that Kabuki has lost some of its connection to the general public, Kabuki drama is an irreplaceable aspect of Japanese society that will continue to entertain audiences and influence contemporary drama and Japanese history for years to come. The flashy, colorful spectacle filled with music, movement, and emotion has the ability to take the audience on a journey to a new world. Works Cited Binnie, Paul, and Dieter Wanczura, eds. Ã¢â¬Å"Kabuki Theater. Ã¢â¬ Artelino. N. p. , 2009. Web. 11 Apr. 2011. ;http://www. artelino. com/? articles/? kabuki_theater. asp;. Brandon, James R. Ã¢â¬Å"Myth and Reality: A Story of Ã¢â¬ËKabukiÃ¢â¬â¢ during American Censorship, 1945-1949. Ã¢â¬ Asian Theatre Journal 23. 1 (2006): 1-110 . JSTOR. Web. 11 Apr. 2011.